NGAPHAMBILI

Ukukhula ekusetyenzisweni kwamandla kuye kwanda kule minyaka idlulileyo njengoko uguquko lwamandla lwenzeka. Oku kukhula kwamandla asetyenziswayo kwihlabathi liphela kwenza ukuba kufuneke ukuba kukhangelwe amanye amandla asebenzayo anokunceda ukondla lonke usetyenziso olufunekayo oluza kufuneka. Kuba i-fusion yenyukliya ayikabikho kwinqanaba lezamashishini, uthotho lophando kwiindawo ezininzi iminyaka. Ukusetyenziswa kokuthethwa kokuveliswa kukudityaniswa kwenyukliya yenye yeenjongo kunye neenzame ababenazo bonke abaphandi ukuze baphuhlise amandla amakhulu. Ngale nto, kukho inkqubo eyaziwa njenge NGAPHAMBILI (I-Reactor yovavanyo lweNyukliya yaMazwe ngaMazwe).

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni inkqubo ye-ITER kwaye yintoni eyona njongo yayo.

Yintoni iTERA

Uhlaziyo ITER

Amandla aveliswa yinkqubo yenyukliya eyaziwa ngokuba yi-fusion yenyukliya angaba mkhulu. Xa amandla aveliswa kukudityaniswa kwenyukliya kweeathom ezikhanyayo kwezi zinzima kusetyenziswa, isixa esikhulu samandla asebenzayo sinokufumaneka. Nangona kunjalo, yinto engekaphuhliswa kwinqanaba lezemizi-mveliso.

Ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-50 kubekho iinzame ezibalulekileyo kuphando nakuphuhliso lwe-fusion yenyukliya kuba inenzuzo enkulu. Kwaye kukuba ngexesha lokudityaniswa kwenyukliya isixa esikhulu samandla siveliswa. Esinye sezithako eziyimfuneko ukuze le fusion yenzeke yi-deuterium. I-Deuterium yindawo efanelekileyo ye-hydrogen isotope. Ngesi sizathu, i-fusion yenyukliya yenye yezona zinto zifunwa kakhulu emva kokuphendula kwicandelo lamandla.

ITER iphakathi kweenkqubo zamazwe aphesheya eziye zabonisa ukuba kunokwenzeka ukugcina inkqubo ye-fusion yenyukliya kwi-plasma kodwa ifuna umgudu omkhulu. Injongo yale nkqubo kukumisela ukusebenza kwetekhnoloji kunye noqoqosho lokudibana kwenyukliya. Indlela eza kwenziwa ngayo le mpendulo kukuvalelwa ngemagnethi ukuze kuveliswe umbane. Oku kusebenza njengesigaba sokuqala kulwakhiwo lwezixhobo ezinokusetyenziselwa ukuvelisa amandla ngale nkqubo.

Ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50, IYurophu ibiyinkokheli kuphando lwenyukliya. Yonke imiba enxulumene nefusion enxulumene nefiziksi kunye nophando lwechemistry zilungelelaniswe kwiKhomishini yaseYurophu. Inkqubo ye-ITER ixhaswa ngeNkqubo yeNkqubo-sikhokelo yoPhando ye-EURATOM kunye nemali yesizwe evela kumaLungu aseMelika naseSwitzerland. Enye yeenzuzo zokudityaniswa kwenyukliya ngamandla alo amakhulu. Kwaye inesakhono esikhulu sokukwazi ukuvelisa amandla. Ingxaki kukuba ukuze le fusion yenyukliya isebenze ngokufanelekileyo, amaqondo obushushu aphakathi kwe-100 kunye ne-200 yezigidi zeedigri Celsius ayadingeka. Le yinto, namhlanje, ekunzima ukuyiphumeza.

ITER, iCadarache neSpain

NGAPHAMBILI

Yayiyiprojekthi eyayinohlahlo-lwabiwo mali lokuqala olumalunga ne-5.000 yezigidi zeerandi ezinokuthi ziphindwe kathathu ukuba iziphumo ziqale ukubonisa ngokukhawuleza. Ixesha eliqikelelweyo lokwakhiwa kwale projekthi limalunga malunga neminyaka eli-10 kwaye kulindeleke ukuba iqhubeke nalo msebenzi kangangeminyaka engama-20.

ITER ithathwa njengeyona projekthi inkulu yophando lwamandla esayensi kwihlabathi. Eyona njongo yayo iphambili kukubonisa ukuba kunokwenzeka ukuba kusetyenziswe ukudityaniswa kwenyukliya njengomthombo wamandla. Kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba ukudibana kwenyukliya kwenzeka ngaphakathi elangeni nasezinkwenkwezini. Kwezi ndawo amaqondo obushushu aphezulu kakhulu kunye noxinzelelo. Uxinzelelo olubangelwa ngamandla amakhulu omxhuzulane akho elangeni lubangela ukuba amaqondo obushushu abe phezulu kakhulu kwaye nokusabela kwefusion yenyukliya kunokwenzeka.

Kude kube namhlanje isengumatshini wophando, uthathelwa ingqalelo ngakumbi njengomatshini wokulinga. Ikomkhulu le-Arhente ye-European Fusion ligcinwe e-Barcelona ukusukela ngo-2007, apho yonke imizamo efunekayo yokwenza i-fusion yenyukliya ihlelwe e-ITER. Kukho iyonke ngaphezulu kwe-180 yabantu abasebenza bohlule phakathi kweenjineli, oosonzululwazi kunye nabalawuli. ISpain ithatha inxaxheba kule nkqubo ngeManyano yaseYurophu kunye negalelo layo lokuqala kunye neyona nto iphambili kwicandelo le-physics yokuvalelwa ngemagnethi.

Kwenziwa inzame zokuphucula ukuveliswa kwetrium kunye nolawulo lwenaliti yamandla, iinkqubo zokuqonda isifo kunye nolawulo, i-tritium yenye ye-isotope ye-hydrogen. ISpain yenze umzamo omkhulu ukuze uphuculo lwetekhnoloji lube nefuthe kuphuhliso lwe-reactor. Uncedo ngezinto ezizodwa, iinkqubo zokuphatha ezikude, kunye neenkqubo zesinyithi ezingamanzi.

ndaba Latest

Iindaba zamva nje malunga neprojekthi ye-ITER yayikukuba yayinelayisensi ngo-2012 ngabasemagunyeni baseFrance. Ulwakhiwo luqale ngo-2014 kwaye izinto ezisetyenziswayo zahanjiswa kumazwe athatha inxaxheba kule projekthi.

Asinguye wonke umntu ovumelana notyalo-mali olukhulu lwezoqoqosho oludinga ukudityaniswa kwenyukliya. Yintoni egqithisile, Kukho iingxaki ekufuneka zisonjululwe, ezinje ngokuveliswa kwetritium yerhasi eqhumayo.. Kukho amanye amaqela acacisa ukuba iinjongo zamandla esizibonileyo zinokufezekiswa ukuba lonke olo tyalo-mali lwenziwe kumandla acocekileyo naphantsi afana nokudityaniswa kwamandla ahlaziyekayo.

Kukwakucingwa ukuba ukudityaniswa kwamandla ahlaziyiweyo kunokwenziwa ngexesha elifutshane kwaye ngexabiso eliphantsi. Bayayithathela ingqalelo into yokuba ukuvelisa amandla nangayiphi na indlela kubiza imali kwaye kubangele impembelelo yokusingqongileyo kwinqanaba elithile. Nangona kunjalo, amandla ahlaziyiweyo abonakalisiwe ukuba anefuthe elincinci kwindalo esingqongileyo njengoko isebenzisa amandla kwindalo. Ayingcolisi ngexesha lokusetyenziswa kwayo kwaye inokuphuculwa ngophuhliso lwetekhnoloji.

Kuxhomekeke kwindlela uphando lwe-ITER oluhamba ngayo, Ayizukukwazi ukuvelisa amandla kwezorhwebo kude kube ngumnyaka ka-2035 ekuqaleni.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga neprojekthi ye-ITER.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.