Kaplan injini

I-Kaplan turbine yamandla ahlaziyekayo

Njengoko sisazi, ukuvelisa amandla e-hydraulic kufuneka sigalele isixa esikhulu samanzi ngengxangxasi ukuze sihambise i-injini yomoya. Enye yeeturbines ezisetyenziswa kakhulu kumandla e-hydraulic yi Kaplan injini. Yi-hydraulic jet turbine esetyenziselwa iigradients ezincinci ukuya kuthi ga kwishumi leemitha. Ukuhamba kuhlala kufuneka okukhulu ukuze kuveliswe isixa esikhulu samandla.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba i-injini ye-Kaplan iqulathe ntoni, ziimpawu zantoni na kwaye isetyenziselwa njani ukwenza amandla e-hydraulic.

Yintoni iinjini iKaplan

Kaplan injini

I-jet hydraulic jet turbine esebenzisa iigradients ezincinci ukuphakama ukusuka kwiimitha ezimbalwa ukuya kumashumi ambalwa. Olunye lweempawu eziphambili kukuba ihlala isebenza ngamazinga aphezulu okuhamba. Ukuhamba kuhamba ukusuka kwi-200 ukuya kwi-300 yee-cubic metres ngomzuzwana. Isetyenziselwa ngokubanzi ukuveliswa kwamandla e-hydraulic, olu luhlobo lwamandla ahlaziyekayo.

I-injini ye-Kaplan yasungulwa ngo-1913 ngu-Professor Víktor Kaplan wase-Austrian. Luhlobo lwe-hydraulic turbine emile okwe-propeller apho inee-blade ezinokuthi zijolise ekuhambeni okungafaniyo kwamanzi. Siyazi ukuba ukuhamba kwamanzi kuyahluka ngokuxhomekeka kubungakanani bevolumu. Ngokwazi ukuba neebhleyidi ezijolise ekuhambeni kwamanzi, singayonyusa intsebenzo ngokuyigcina iphezulu ukuya kumaqondo okuhamba kwe-20-30% yokuhamba nje ngegama.

Eyona nto iqhelekileyo kukuba le turbine iza ixhotyisiwe ngesitatshi esimiselweyo esinceda ukukhokela ukuhamba kwamanzi. Ngale ndlela, ukuveliswa kwamandla ombane kulungiselelwe. Ukusebenza kweturbine ye-Kaplan kunokusetyenziselwa uluhlu olubanzi lokuhamba ngokuxhomekeke kwiimfuno. Ngokufanelekileyo, i-injini yomoya kufuneka ilungiswe kusetyenziswa inkqubo yokuqhelanisa apho sibeka khona i-stator deflectors xa utshintsho lutshintsha. Asisoloko sinamanzi afanayo kuba sixhomekeke kwimvula nakwinqanaba lamanzi.

Xa ulwelo lufikelela kwiTurbine yaseKaplan, enkosi kumjelo ofana nomoya, isebenza ukondla umjikelo wonke ngokupheleleyo. Xa ulwelo lufikelele kwiinjini yomoya ludlula kumhambisi olunika ulwelo ukujikeleza kwalo ngokujikeleza. Yilapho i-impeller inoxanduva lokuphambanisa ukuhamba kweedigri ezingama-90 ukuyibuyisela umva ngokuchanekileyo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Xa sine-injini yomoya eshukumayo siyazi ukuba umgaqo phantse awukho. Oku kuthetha ukuba i-injini yomoya inokusebenza kuphela kuluhlu oluthile, ke umhambisi akanakulungelelaniswa. Ngomatshini we-Kaplan we-injini sifumana ukuqhelaniswa kweebhanti zokuhamba ukuze zilungelelanise ukuhamba kwamanzi. Ukongeza, intshukumo ihambelana nokuhamba ngoku. Kungenxa yokuba useto ngalunye lomhambisi luhambelana nolwazelelo olwahlukileyo lweebhleyidi. Ndiyabulela koku, kunokwenzeka ukuba usebenze kunye izivuno eziphezulu ukuya kuthi ga kwiipesenti ezingama-90 kuluhlu olubanzi lokuhamba kwamazinga.

Intsimi yokusetyenziswa kwezi turbine ifikelela kubuninzi bamathontsi ajikeleze ubude beemitha ezingama-80 kwaye iqukuqela ukuya kwinqanaba lokuhamba kweemitha ezingama-50 ngomzuzwana. Oku kugqithela ecaleni kumhlaba wokusetyenziswa kwe Francis. Oomatshini bomoya aba bafikelele kuphela kwithontsi leemitha ezili-10 kwaye bagqitha kwii-cubic metres ezingama-300 ngomzuzwana ukuhamba.

Ukwandisa ukuveliswa kwamandla e-hydraulic kuyinto eqhelekileyo ukubona ii-injini zomoya zeKaplan. Zizi-injini zomoya ezisebenza ngokupheleleyo kwaye ziphendula kakuhle nakuluphi na ulwelo olugqithisileyo. Enkosi kwezi turbine zisusa isixa esikhulu seendleko zokufaka kuba le turbine ibiza kakhulu kune-propeller turbine kodwa ufakelo lusebenza ngakumbi kwixesha elide.

Zisebenza njani ii-injini zomoya kumbane wamanzi

Ukuba sifuna ukugcina ukuphuma kwamandla ombane kufakelo lwe-hydroelectric, isantya seinjini yomoya kufuneka sigcinwe sihleli. Siyazi ukuba uxinzelelo lwamanzi luyahluka ngokuxhomekeka kwinqanaba lokuhamba kunye nokuqina apho iwela khona. Nangona kunjalo, isantya seinjini yomoya kufuneka sigcinwe rhoqo ngaphandle kokungafani koxinzelelo. Ukuze uhlale uzinzile, kufuneka inani elikhulu lolawulo kuzo zombini iiturbine zikaFrancis kunye neKaplan turbine.

Ufakelo lwamavili ePelton luhlala lusenziwa apho ukuhamba kwamanzi kuncediswa ukulawula ngokuvula nangokuvala imilomo ye-ejector. Xa kukho i-injini ye-Kaplan kwindawo leyo, kusetyenziselwa ukukhupha umbhobho wokukhupha amanzi ukunceda ukutshintsha utshintsho lwangoku olukhawulezileyo kwimijelo yokulahla enokuthi inyuse uxinzelelo lwamanzi ngequbuliso. Ngale ndlela siyaqinisekisa ukuba iipropeler zihlala zigcinwa rhoqo kwaye azichaphazeli utshintsho kuxinzelelo lwamanzi. Oku konyuka koxinzelelo lwamanzi kwaziwa njengezando zamanzi. Zingonakalisa kakhulu izibonelelo.

Nangona kunjalo, ngalo lonke olu seto, ukuhamba kwamanzi rhoqo ngemilomo kugcinwa ukuze ukuhamba kweencakuba zeinjini yomoya kugcinwe kuzinzile. Ukuthintela izando zamanzi, imilomo yokukhutshwa ivaliwe kancinci. Ii-injini zomoya ezisetyenziselwa ukuveliswa kwamandla e-hydraulic ziyahluka ngokweendidi ezithile:

  • Ku ukuxhuma okukhulu kunye namazinga amancinci okuhamba Iipelton turbines ziyasetyenziswa.
  • Kwabo iintloko ezincinci kodwa ezinokuhamba okuphezulu Iifrancis zikaFrancis zisetyenziswa.
  • En iingxangxasi ezincinci kakhulu kodwa ngokuhamba okukhulu kakhulu I-Kaplan kunye ne-propeller turbines zisetyenziswa.

Izityalo ezisebenzisa umbane zixhomekeke kumthamo omkhulu wamanzi oqulethwe kumadama. Oku kuhamba kufuneka kulawulwe kwaye kungagcinwa phantse rhoqo ukuze amanzi ahanjiswe ngemibhobho okanye iipenstiki. Ukuhamba kulawulwa ngezivalo ukulungelelanisa ukuhamba kwamanzi okudlula kwiinjini yomoya. Isixa samanzi esivunyelwe ukuba sidlule kwiinjini yomoya sixhomekeke kwimfuno yombane mzuzu ngamnye. Amanye amanzi aphuma ngemijelo yokukhutshwa kwamanzi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga ne-Kaplan turbine kunye namandla aphehlwa ngamanzi.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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