Izinto zokuqhuba kunye nezokugquma

izinto eziqhuba umbane

Los izinto zokuqhuba kunye nezokugquma bahlelwa ngokokuziphatha kwabo ngokubhekiselele kumbane. Kukho abo banako ukuqhuba umbane kunye nabanye, ngokuchaseneyo, abanako ukwenza oko. Ezi zixhobo zineempawu ezahlukeneyo kwaye zisetyenziswa kumacandelo ahlukeneyo oshishino kunye nekhaya.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuyazi malunga nezixhobo zokuqhuba kunye ne-insulating kunye nokuba yintoni enye yazo.

Izinto zokuqhuba kunye nezokugquma

izinto zokuqhuba kunye nezokugquma

Izixhobo zinokwahlulwa zibe ziindidi ezimbini ezibanzi: abaqhubi kunye nezithinteli. Kuya kuba kuchaneka ngakumbi ukubachaza njengabancedisi abalungileyo kunye nababhexeshi abangalunganga, kuxhomekeke ekubeni into nganye iququzelela okanye ithintele ukuqhuba. Olu lwahlulo luchaphazela nokuba yi-thermal conductivity (okt ukugqithiswa kobushushu) okanye ukuhanjiswa kombane (okt flow current).

Ukuba ngaba into ethile ihambisa umbane okanye hayi kuxhomekeke kwindlela ii-electron ezinokudlula ngayo kuyo. Iiprotoni azishukumi ngenxa yokuba, nangona zithwala intlawulo yombane, zidibanisa nezinye iiprotoni kunye neenyutroni kwinucleus. Ii-electron zeValence zifana nee-exoplanets ezijikeleza iinkwenkwezi. Batsalwa ngokwaneleyo ukuba bahlale kwindawo, kodwa Akusoloko kuthatha amandla amaninzi ukubasusa endaweni.

Iintsimbi zilahleka ngokulula kwaye zifumane ii-electron, ngoko zilawula uluhlu lwabaqhubi. iimolekyuli Organic ubukhulu becala insulators, ngokuyinxenye ngenxa yokuba abanjwe kunye bonds covalent (electrons eqhelekileyo), kodwa ngenxa yokuba iibhondi hydrogen ukunceda uzinzise iimolekyuli ezininzi. Uninzi lwezixhobo azikho ii-conductor ezilungileyo okanye izithinteli ezifanelekileyo. Aziwusebenzisi lula umbane, kodwa ngamandla awoneleyo, ii-electron ziyahamba.

Ezinye izinto zokukhusela zifumaneka kwindawo ecocekileyo, kodwa baziphatha okanye baphendule xa benziwe ngexabiso elincinci lenye into okanye ukuba baqulethe ukungcola. Ngokomzekelo, i-ceramics ezininzi ziyi-insulators ezigqwesileyo, kodwa ukuba uyaziguqula, unokufumana i-superconductors. Amanzi acocekileyo yi-insulator, kodwa amanzi amdaka awahambisani kangako, ngelixa amanzi anetyuwa ane-ion ezidadayo ezikhululekileyo aqhuba kakuhle.

Yintoni imathiriyeli yokuqhuba?

izinto zokuqhuba kunye nezokugquma

Ii-conductor zezo zinto zivumela ukuba ii-electron zihambe ngokukhululekileyo phakathi kwamasuntswana. Izinto ezenziwe ngezinto zokuqhuba ziya kuvumela ukuhanjiswa kwentlawulo kuwo wonke umhlaba wento. Ukuba intlawulo idluliselwe kwinto kwindawo ethile, ihanjiswa ngokukhawuleza phezu kwendawo yonke yento.

Ukuhanjiswa kwentlawulo kuyisiphumo sokuhamba kwee-electron. Izinto zokuqhuba zivumela ii-electron ukuba zithuthwe ukusuka kwelinye iqhekeza ukuya kwelinye ngenxa yokuba into ehlawulisiweyo iya kuhlala isasaza intlawulo yayo kude kube yilapho yonke into enyanyekayo phakathi kwee-electron ezingaphezulu iyancipha. Ngale ndlela, ukuba umqhubi ohlawulelwayo udibana nenye into, umqhubi unokude adlulisele intlawulo yakhe kuloo nto.

Ukutshintshwa kwentlawulo phakathi kwezinto kunokwenzeka ukuba kwenzeke ukuba into yesibini yenziwe ngezinto zokuqhuba. Ii-conductor zivumela ukudluliselwa kwentlawulo ngokusebenzisa ukuhamba ngokukhululekileyo kwee-electron.

Yintoni imathiriyeli yesemiconductor?

iintsimbi

Phakathi kwezinto zokuqhuba sifumana izinto ezinomsebenzi ofanayo kodwa ezinokuthi zisebenze njenge-insulators, nangona oku kuxhomekeke kwizinto ezininzi. Le miba zezi:

  • indawo yombane
  • amandla kazibuthe
  • uxinzelelo
  • isiganeko ngemitha
  • ubushushu bokusingqongileyo

Izinto ezisetyenziswa kakhulu ze-semiconductor I-silicon, i-germanium kwaye kutshanje isetyenziswe isulfure njengesixhobo se-semiconductor.

Yintoni i-superconducting material?

Lo mbandela unomdla kuba unamandla endalo ukuba izinto eziphathekayo kufuneka ziqhube umbane, kodwa phantsi kweemeko ezifanelekileyo, ngaphandle kokuchasana okanye ukulahlekelwa kwamandla.

Ngokubanzi, ukuxhathisa kwee-conductors zetsimbi kunciphisa ngokuhla kweqondo lokushisa. Xa ukushisa okubalulekileyo kufikeleleke, ukuchasana kwe-superconductor kwehla kakhulu, kodwa kuqinisekisa ukuba amandla angaphakathi aqhubeka ehamba, nangona kungekho mandla. I-Superconductivity yenziwe.

Kwenzeka kwiintlobo ezininzi zezinto eziphathekayo, kubandakanywa i-alloys elula njenge-tin okanye i-aluminium engabonakali ukuxhathisa umbane, ngaloo ndlela ikhusela izinto eziphathekayo ekungeneni kwi-domain yayo. Yiyiphi impembelelo yeMeissner, ivumela ukuba izinto zigxothwe, zigcinwe.

Yintoni i-insulating material

Ngokungafaniyo nabaqhubi, i-insulators zizinto ezithintela ukuhamba ngokukhululekile kwee-electron ukusuka kwi-athomu ukuya kwi-athomu kunye ne-molecule ukuya kwi-molecule. Ukuba umthwalo udluliselwa kwi-isolator kwindawo ethile, umthwalo ongaphezulu uya kuhlala kwindawo yokuqala yomthwalo. Iincinci ze-insulating azivumeli ukuhamba kwamahhala kwee-electron, ngoko ke intlawulo ayifane isasazwe ngokulinganayo phezu kobuso bezinto zokukhusela.

Nangona i-insulators ayiloncedo kuyo ukudluliselwa kwentlawulo, dlala indima ebalulekileyo kwimifuniselo ye-electrostatic kunye nemiboniso. Izinto zokuqhuba zihlala zixhonywa kwizinto ezikhuselayo. Olu lungiselelo lwabaqhubi abangaphezulu kwe-insulator luvimbela ukuhanjiswa kwentlawulo ukusuka kwinto eqhubayo ukuya kwindawo ejikelezileyo, ukuphepha izingozi ezifana neesekethe ezimfutshane okanye i-electrocution. Eli lungiselelo lisivumela ukuba sisebenzise into eqhubayo ngaphandle kokuyichukumisa.

Ngoko sinokuthi izinto zokukhusela zisebenza njengesiphatho somqhubi phezu kwetafile yelebhu ehambayo. Umzekelo, ukuba i-aluminium soda ingasetyenziselwa ukulayisha iimvavanyo, itoti kufuneka igxunyekwe phezu kwekomityi yeplastiki. Iglasi isebenza njenge-insulator, ithintela i-soda ukuba ingavuzi.

Imizekelo yeZixhobo zokuQhuba kunye neziKhuseli

Imizekelo yezinto zokuqhuba ibandakanya oku kulandelayo:

  • ahlawule
  • ubhedu
  • oro
  • ialuminium
  • intsimbi
  • intsimbi
  • ubhedu
  • ubhedu
  • imekyuri
  • Grafayithi
  • Amanzi olwandle
  • ikhonkrithi

Imizekelo yezinto ezigqumayo ziquka oku kulandelayo:

  • iiglasi
  • irabha
  • petroleum
  • asphalt
  • ifayibha yeglasi
  • porcelain
  • yodongwe
  • Quartz
  • umqhaphu (omileyo)
  • iphepha (lomile)
  • iinkuni ezomileyo)
  • iplastiki
  • indawo
  • iidayimani
  • amanzi acocekileyo
  • eraser

Ukwahlula kwezixhobo kwiindidi zabaqhubi kunye ne-insulators yinto yokwahlula okwenziweyo. Kufanelekile ngakumbi ukubeka izinto kwindawo ethile ngokuqhubekayo.

Kufuneka kuqondwe ukuba akuzona zonke izinto zokuqhuba ezine-conductivity efanayo, kwaye akuzona zonke i-insulators ezichasene ngokulinganayo nokuhamba kwee-electron. I-Conductivity ifana nokucaca kwezinto ezithile ukuze kukhanye.: Izinto ezilula "ukudlula" ukukhanya zibizwa ngokuba "zicacile", ngelixa ezo "zingadluli" ngokulula zibizwa ngokuba yi "opaque". Nangona kunjalo, ayizizo zonke izinto ezibonakalayo ezibonakalayo ezine-optical conductivity efanayo. Okufanayo kuya kubaqhubi bombane, abanye bangcono kunabanye.

Abo bane-conductivity ephezulu, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-superconductors, babekwe kwelinye icala kunye nezixhobo ezisezantsi ze-conductivity zibekwe kwelinye icala. Njengoko unokubona ngasentla, isinyithi siya kufakwa kufuphi nesona siphelo sokuqhuba, ngelixa iglasi iya kubekwa kwelinye icala le-continuum. I-conductivity yesinyithi inokuba yitriliyoni ephindwe kabini kuneglasi.

Ubushushu bukwachaphazela i-conductivity. Njengoko iqondo lobushushu lisanda, iiathom kunye nee-electron zifumana amandla. Ezinye ii-insulators, ezinje ngeglasi, azikho conductor ezingalunganga xa zibanda, kodwa ziseziiconductors ezilungileyo xa kushushu. Uninzi lwesinyithi lusebenza ngcono.. Zivumela ukupholisa kunye nezikhondaktha ezimbi ngakumbi xa kushushu. Abanye abaqhubi abalungileyo bafunyenwe kwii-superconductors kumaqondo aphantsi kakhulu.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nezixhobo zokuqhuba kunye ne-insulating.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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