iityuwa ezityhidiweyo

ityuwa etyhidiweyo

Las ityuwa etyhidiweyo ziyimveliso enoluhlu olubanzi lwezicelo, ezifana nokufudumeza kwenkqubo yokushisa okuphezulu, unyango lobushushu kunye ne-annealing yensimbi, kunye nokugcinwa kwe-thermal kwizityalo zamandla elanga. Ezi tyuwa ziquka i-fluoride, i-chloride kunye ne-nitrate. Banesicelo esikhulu kwihlabathi lonke lamandla ahlaziyekayo.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga neentaka eziphosiweyo, zeziphi iimpawu zabo kunye luncedo.

iityuwa ezityhidiweyo

iityuwa ezinyibilikisiweyo ukunyibilika amandla

Uncedo lweetyuwa ezityhidiweyo ziphezulu kakhulu ulwelo ubushushu besigaba sokusebenza (1000 ° F/538°C okanye ngaphezulu) kunye noxinzelelo lomphunga omncinci okanye akukho. Iityuwa ezinyibilikisiweyo zinokuthatha indawo yeoli ephilayo okanye eyokwenziwa kwizicelo zokudlulisa ubushushu. Nangona iityuwa ezityhidiweyo zibonelela ngeenzuzo ezinkulu ngenxa yobushushu obuphezulu bokusebenza, banokuba neempawu ezingafunekiyo ezinamaqondo aphezulu omkhenkce (120°C ukuya kuma-220°C).

Kukho iintlobo ezintathu eziphambili zeenkqubo zokufudumeza ityuwa etyhidiweyo: izifudumezi zetyuwa ebhafini, iinkqubo zetyuwa ezinyibilikisiweyo, kunye nokufudumeza ngokuthe ngqo kwizicelo ezifana nokunyanga ubushushu kwiindawo zentsimbi. Imiceli mngeni inokubakho kuzo zonke ezi ntlobo zeenkqubo: i-metallurgy, i-instrumentation, ukhetho lwecandelo lenkqubo, ukulandelwa kobushushu, ukunyibilika, kunye nokukhupha amanzi, ukukhankanya ezimbalwa.

iinkqubo zetyuwa etyhidiweyo

amandla agciniweyo

iinkqubo zetyuwa etyhidiweyo isetyenziselwa ukusasaza ityuwa yesigaba solwelo olushushu kutshintshiselwano lobushushu okanye ezinye iinkqubo zokusebenzisa ubushushu.

Xa kufuneka amandla ashushu, inkqubo yokujikeleza ityuwa etyhidiweyo iqala. Uninzi lweenkqubo zigcina ityuwa ngaphezu kwendawo yokukhenkceza ukuthintela inkqubo yokunyibilika kwakhona. Kwisiqalo esibandayo okanye imeko yokuqala, ityuwa iyancibilika kwi-tank yetyuwa eshushu. Ityuwa etyhidiweyo ke iqala ukujikeleza kwisekethe evaliweyo kusetyenziswa impompo yokubuyisela. eyenzelwe ngokukodwa ukumpompa ityuwa eshushu. Ulwelo lujikeleza ukusuka kwitanki yetyuwa eshushu ukuya kwindawo evuthayo okanye kwisifudumezi sombane, emva koko siye kumsebenzisi kwaye sibuyele kwitanki yetyuwa eshushu.

Inkqubo ngokuqhelekileyo iyilwe ngendlela yokuba ukuba ipompo yokujikeleza ivaliwe, ityuwa etyhidiweyo iya kubuyela kwitanki yetyuwa eshushu. Iyingqayizivele kwiinkqubo zokufudumeza i-loop evaliweyo ngenxa yendawo yokukhenkceza yetyuwa. Inkqubo kufuneka isebenzise uyilo lwetanki yetyuwa eshushu ethi ulwelo lusoloko lubuyela kulo xa inkqubo ivaliwe.

Uyilo kunye nokufudumala kwezi nkqubo kufuneka kugweme ukuqina okanye ukutshitshiswa kwe-thermal kwimibhobho yokujikeleza. Ityuwa etyhidiweyo igcinwe kwezi nkqubo kwi-1050 ° F / 566 ° C kuxinzelelo oluqhelekileyo lwe-atmospheric. Kwezi nkqubo, abenzi boluvo basetyenziselwa ukulinganisa nokulawula inqanaba lolwelo, uxinzelelo, ubushushu, kunye nesantya sokuqukuqela.

Iinkqubo zokuhanjiswa kwetyuwa ezinyibilikisiweyo zinokubonelela ngezityalo ngeendlela zokugcina amandla ezidityanisiweyo ezenzelwe ukuhlangabezana neemfuno ezithile zesicelo. Le ngcamango yogcino lwamandla ixhaphakile kwizityalo zamandla elanga ukugcina amandla ashushu ebusuku okanye ngeentsuku ezinamafu.

Amatanki okugcina

isityalo selanga

Itanki yetyuwa etyhidiweyo yinxalenye ebalulekileyo yenkqubo yetyuwa etyhidiweyo njengoko inceda ukuhambisa ityuwa etyhidiweyo kwijenereyitha kwaye inika amandla ukufakwa.

Iinkqubo zetyuwa ezinyibilikisiweyo zidla ngokusebenza ngamatanki okugcina amabini amanqanaba ahlukeneyo okuzalisa kunye namaqondo okushisa, itanki yetyuwa eshushu kunye netyuwa ebandayo. Ityuwa etyhidiweyo kwitanki efakwe efrijini iyahamba kumjikelo, ngelixa ityuwa ekwitanki yetyuwa eshushu ijikeleza ukondla inkqubo.

Ipompo yokujikeleza kwenkqubo idla ngokufakwa kule tanki, kunye nento yombane okanye umbhobho wokulwa nomlilo lowo isetyenziswa njengomthombo wobushushu ukunyibilikisa ityuwa eqinileyo. La matanki ahlala ephathwa ngobushushu kwaye anokufakwa i-insulated ngezinto ze-ceramic kunye neengubo zokukhusela. Ngokufaka i-insulating itanki, unokuqinisekisa ukusebenza kakuhle.

IBhafu Uhlobo lweSifudumezi seTyuwa

Iinkqubo zokufudumeza ityuwa zohlobo lokuhlambela ezingasebenzisi impompo yokujikeleza zisekelwe kwinkqubo yokuguqulwa kwendalo. ezi nkqubo ziyilelwe ukusebenza kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu, ukubonelela ngobushushu kwizicelo ezahlukeneyo.

Izifudumezi zetyuwa ebhafini zisebenza ngokufudumeza isikhongozeli setyuwa kusetyenziswa isitshisi ityhubhu yomlilo okanye into yombane entywiliselwe ezantsi kwesikhongozeli. Ityuwa etyhidiweyo ke ifudumeza inkqubo entywiliselwe ikhoyili apho ulwelo lwenkqubo lufudunyezwe. Amandla e-thermal adluliselwa kwi-tube yomlilo ukuya kwindawo yokuhlambela. ityuwa njengoko Isiphakathi sokudlulisa ubushushu sisebenza kumaqondo obushushu ukuya kuma 800°F/427°C.

Iingqwalasela zoyilo kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo xa kulayishwa kwaye kunyibilikiswa ityuwa eqinisiweyo. Uyilo olubi lunokukhokelela kumonakalo kwimbiza yokufudumala okanye ityhubhu yomlilo xa inkqubo iqalwa kwiimeko ezibandayo.

Izifudumezi zokuhlambela ngetyuwa ziqhele ukusetyenziselwa ukufudumeza igesi yokuvuselela kwizicelo ze-molecular sieve, nangona zifanelekile kwezinye izicelo ezifuna uyilo olulula lwenkqubo yokufudumala engathanga ngqo kunye namandla aphezulu okushisa okusebenzayo.

Ukugcina imali ngetyuwa etyhidiweyo

Ukugcinwa kwetyuwa enyibilikisiweyo akusebenzi kakuhle kunokugcinwa kwebhetri kuba kuphela i-70% yamandla asetyenziselwa ukufudumeza ityuwa aguqulwa abuyele kumbane, ngelixa iibhetri zinokufikelela ekusebenzeni okungaphezulu kwama-90%. Itekhnoloji yogcino lwamandla inikwe amandla ziityuwa ezinyibilikisiweyo ezifunyenwe kusetyenziswa iinkqubo zokubona izinto eziphezulu ezisetyenziselwa ukufumanisa izinto ezintsha. Ukugcinwa kwamandla kubaluleke ngakumbi njengoko ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo zokuvelisa eziguquguqukayo kwandisa imithombo yamandla njengelanga kunye nomoya.

Ugcino lwamandla aphantsi kakhulu inokwenza inethiwekhi yomelele ngakumbi kwaye isebenze, ukunika iinkampani zamandla ukuguquguquka ngakumbi ukuvelisa nokuhambisa umbane. Iingcali zenethiwekhi kwi-summit ye-ARPA-E zathi ukugcinwa kwamandla kubaluleke kakhulu ekuhlengahlengisweni kwegridi kwiminyaka emashumi ezayo, kodwa iindlela zangoku zokugcina amanzi zisebenza kuphela kwiimeko ezithile kwaye zithatha indawo eninzi kakhulu.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga netyuwa etyhidiweyo yokugcina amandla.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.