Isityalo esinamandla esisebenza ngamanzi kunye neentlobo

Isityalo samanzi

Namhlanje siza kuthetha ngamanye amandla ahlaziyekayo kubunzulu. Imalunga nombane wamanzi. Kodwa asiyi kuthetha ngayo ngokwayo, kodwa malunga isityalo samandla ombane apho iveliswa khona kwaye yenziwa khona. Isityalo esivelisa umbane ngamanzi kubaluleke kakhulu ekuvelisweni kwamandla ahlaziyekayo avela kumadama amanzi. Ukongeza, inezinye izinto ezininzi ezisetyenziswayo kunye nezibonelelo kubemi.

Kule nqaku siza kuthetha ngazo zonke izibonelelo kunye nokungalunganga kwezixhobo zombane we-hydroelectric kwaye siza kubona ukuba zisebenza njani. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ngakumbi ngayo? Qhubeka ufunda.

Yintoni isityalo se-hydroelectric

Ukusebenza kwezityalo zamanzi

Xa siqala umzi-mveliso wokuvelisa umbane ngamanzi, into esinethemba layo kukukwazi ukuvelisa amandla avela kumanzi agcinwe kumadama. Into yokuqala yokwenza kukuvelisa amandla oomatshini kwaye siyitshintshe ibe ngumbane.

Inkqubo yokuqokelela amanzi yenziwa ukudala ukungalingani okubangela amandla amandla aqokelelweyo. La manzi awiswa phantsi ukuze afumane amandla ngumahluko womxhuzulane. Xa amanzi edlula kwiinjini yomoya, ivelisa intshukumo ejikelezayo eqhuba enye ize iguqule amandla oomatshini abe ngumbane.

Izibonelelo zesityalo se-hydroelectric

Ukungancedi kwesityalo se-hydroelectric

Njengoko ubona, oku kuzisa izibonelelo ezinkulu kubemi kwaye hayi kuphela kwinqanaba lamandla. Masidibanise ezi zibonelelo ukuze sizicazulule nganye nganye:

  • Ngamandla ahlaziyekayo. Ngamanye amagama, ayipheli ngexesha njengamafutha eefossil. Amanzi ngokwawo akanamda, kodwa kuyinyani ukuba indalo isizisela imvula rhoqo. Ngale ndlela sinokuphola kwaye siqhubeke nokuyisebenzisa njengomthombo wamandla.
  • Ukuba yendalo ngokupheleleyo kwaye iyavuseleleka, ayingcolisi. Ngamandla acocekileyo.
  • Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, ayisixhamli kuphela kwigalelo lamandla, kodwa ikwadityaniswa nezinye izinto ezinje ngokukhusela kwizikhukula, ukunkcenkceshela, ukuhanjiswa kwamanzi, ukwenziwa kweendlela, ukhenketho okanye ukulungiswa komhlaba.
  • Ngaphandle kwento ocinga ngayo, iindleko zokusebenza nezokugcina ziphantsi. Nje ukuba idama kunye nenkqubo yonke yokubamba amanzi yakhiwe, ulondolozo alukho nzima kwaphela.
  • Ngokungafaniyo nezinye iintlobo zokuxhaphaza amandla, imisebenzi eyenziweyo yokusebenzisa olu hlobo lwamandla inexesha elide elinokubakho.
  • Iinjini yomoya isetyenziselwa ukwenza amandla. I-injini yomoya ilula ukuyisebenzisa, ikhuselekile kwaye isebenza ngokufanelekileyo. Oku kuthetha ukuba iindleko zemveliso ziphantsi kwaye ingaqalwa kwaye imiswe ngokukhawuleza.
  • Kunqabile kufuna ukugadwa kwicala labasebenzi, kuba yindawo elula yokuyenza.

Inyaniso yokuba amandla ahlaziyekayo nacocekileyo aneendleko eziphantsi sele eyenza amandla okhuphiswano kwiimarike. Kuyinyani ukuba ineengxaki ezithile njengoko siza kubona apha ngezantsi, nangona izibonelelo ezifumanekayo zibaluleke ngakumbi.

Ukungancedi kwezityalo zombane

Akumangalisi ukuba olu hlobo lwamandla alunazo zonke izibonelelo. Inezinto ezithile ezingasileliyo xa kuziwa ekuvelisweni kwaye kufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo ukuba izakubekwa njani ukubonelela uluntu okanye, ubuncinci, ukufaka isandla ekugubungeleni ibango lamandla.

Siza kuhlalutya izinto ezingalunganga zolu hlobo lwamandla:

  • Njengoko kulindelwe, isityalo se-hydroelectric ifuna indawo enkulu yomhlaba. Indawo apho ibekwe khona kufuneka ibe neempawu zendalo ezivumela amandla ukuba axhatshazwe ngokufanelekileyo.
  • Iindleko zokwakha zesityalo se-hydroelectric zihlala ziphezuluKuba kufuneka uwulungiselele umhlaba, wakhe inkqubo yokuhambisa umbane kwaye amandla alahlekile kuyo yonke le nkqubo ayinakufunyanwa kwakhona.
  • Xa kuthelekiswa nezinye izityalo okanye ezinye iintlobo zamandla ahlaziyekayo, ukwakhiwa kwesityalo kuthatha ixesha elide.
  • Kuxhomekeke kwiipateni zemvula kunye nemfuno yabemi, ukuveliswa kwamandla akusoloko kuhlala kunjalo.

Okokugqibela kwenzeka ngeendlela ezininzi zamandla ahlaziyekayo. Yenye yeengxaki uninzi ekufuneka lugqityiwe kwicandelo elihlaziyiweyo. Njengamandla omoya afuna imimoya kwaye ilanga Emva kweeyure ezininzi kukhanyiswe ilanga, ii-hydraulic zifuna imvula eninzi ukuze zenze iingxangxasi ezilungileyo.

Ukwenza oku kungalunganga kuncinci, kuya kufuneka uyazi ukuba uyikhetha njani indawo kakuhle. Umzekelo, akufani nokubeka isityalo kwindawo apho imvula inqabile kwaye imeko yemozulu yomile endaweni yokuyibeka kwindawo enemvula eninzi. Ngokwenza oku, ukuveliswa kwamandla kuya kubiza kakhulu kwaye kube kuninzi.

Iindidi zamanzi ombane

Kukho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezityalo zombane kuxhomekeka kwindlela ezisebenza ngayo.

Isikhululo samanzi esiqhutywa ngamanzi omlambo

Isikhululo samanzi esiqhutywa ngamanzi omlambo

Luhlobo lwesityalo esingafumani sixa sikhulu samanzi kwiinjini zomoya, kodwa endaweni yoko thatha ithuba lokuhamba okukhoyo emlanjeni kukho ngelo xesha. Njengokuba amaxesha onyaka ehamba, ukuqukuqela komlambo nako kuyatshintsha, kusenza ukuba kungabikho manzi amoshakeleyo anokuchitheka ngokugcwala kwedama.

Isityalo se-Hydroelectric esine-reservoir yokugcina

Isityalo seHydraulic samandla kunye nedama

Ngokungafaniyo neyangaphambili, le inedama apho kugcinwa khona amanzi. Idama livumela isixa samanzi esifikelela kwiinjini yomoya ukuba silawulwe ngendlela efanelekileyo. Uncedo olunikezelayo kunangaphambili kukuba, ngokusoloko unamanzi amdaka njengendawo yokugcina izinto, inokuvelisa amandla ombane unyaka wonke.

Isikhululo sokumpompa amanzi

Isikhululo sokumpompa ngamanzi

Kule meko sinamachibi amabini akumanqanaba ahlukeneyo. Kuxhomekeka kwimfuno yamandla ombane, bayayinyusa imveliso yabo okanye hayi. Benza oku njengokutshintshiselana okuqhelekileyo. Xa amanzi agcinwe kwichibi elingasentla ewa, jika i-turbine kwaye, xa kukho imfuneko, amanzi ampontshwa asuka kwidama elisezantsi ukuze, kwakhona, iphinde iqale umjikelo wentshukumo.

Olu hlobo lwendawo esembindini inayo Uncedo lokuba unokulawulwa ngokwemfuno zombane.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nezityalo zombane.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.