iseli yamafutha e-hydrogen ezimotweni

masihambe injini yehydrogen

Yiba nomfanekiso-ngqondweni wemoto engakhuphi msi okanye iigesi ezingcolisayo ngelixa iqhuba, kwaye endaweni yokusebenzisa ipetroli okanye idizili, isebenzisa ihydrogen njengamafutha. IHydrojeni ayiseyonto yekamva kodwa sele ifumaneka ngokubulela iseli yamafutha e-hydrogen ezimotweni. Abantu abaninzi bayazibuza ukuba isebenza njani kwaye zeziphi iingenelo zokuzisebenzisa.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela malunga ne-hydrogen fuel cell ezimotweni, iimpawu zayo, iingenelo kunye nokunye okuninzi.

Yintoni iimoto zeeseli zehydrogen

iseli yamafutha e-hydrogen ezimotweni

Enyanisweni, ibhetri yehydrogen sisixhobo esiguqula amandla ekhemikhali agcinwe kwihydrogen abe ngamandla ombane. Isebenza ngenkqubo apho i-hydrogen idibanisa neoksijini evela emoyeni ukuvelisa umbane, amanzi, nobushushu njengemveliso. Umbane owenziweyo unokunika amandla imotor yombane eqhuba amavili emoto, eyivumela ukuba ihambe.

I-hydrogen fuel cell yenziwe ziiseli ezininzi.. Iseli nganye inee-electrode ezimbini, i-anode kunye ne-cathode, ehlulwe yinto ebizwa ngokuba yi-electrolyte. I-Hydrogen yaziswa kwi-anode kunye ne-oksijini evela emoyeni ifakwe kwi-cathode. Xa i-hydrogen idibana ne-anode, iyahlukana ibe ziiproton kunye nee-electron. Iiprotoni zihamba nge-electrolyte ukuya kwi-cathode, ngelixa ii-electron zihamba ngesiphaluka sangaphandle, zivelisa umbane kwinkqubo. Kwi-cathode, iiproton, ii-electron, kunye neoksijini ziyadibana zenze amanzi nobushushu.

I sebenza njani

ukusebenza kwemoto ye-hydrogen

Umahluko ophambili ngemoto ye-hydrogen kukuba, Ngelixa iyimoto yombane, ekubeni unemoto yombane ejika amavili ngokupheleleyo, ayisebenzi ngendlela efanayo. Kwisithuthi se-fuel cell, imoto ivelisa umbane efunekayo.

Endaweni yokusebenzisa iibhetri ukugcina amandla, zisebenzisa iiseli zepetroli, ezifana nezixhobo zombane eziphathwayo. Ukuba sihlalutya iimoto zokutsha, amandla afunyanwa ngokutshisa i-petroleum derivatives, kwaye kwiimoto ze-hydrogen, i-hydrogen icutshungulwa ukuvelisa umbane ngokufunwa.

Igesi yeHydrogen (H2) phantsi koxinzelelo igcinwa kwiitanki ezithile. Le nto ihanjiswa kwi-fuel cell apho i-oksijini evela kumoya ojikelezayo yongezwa ukuvelisa umbane kunye namanzi (H2O) ifunyenwe njengemveliso eseleyo. Kuba ewe, iimoto ze-hydrogen zinemibhobho yokukhupha, kodwa azingcolisi, zikhupha kuphela umphunga wamanzi.

Umbane oveliswa yi-fuel cell uya kwibhetri, kwaye njengakwimoto yombane, ibhetri inoxanduva lokuhambisa amandla kwimoto yombane yemoto. Amandla afunwayo anokuhanjiswa ngokuthe ngqo ukusuka kwiseli yamafutha ukuya kwimoto yombane.

Umbane ogqithisileyo oqokelelwe kwibhetri, kunye nokubuyiswa kwamandla ngokunyanyiswa kokuvuselela, igcinwe ebhetrini, nto leyo evumela umatshini weseli yepetroli ukuba isebenze ngaphandle kokusebenzisa ihydrogen.

Inzuzo kunye Nobude bexesha

zinjani iiseli zehydrogen ezimotweni

Xa kufikwa ekomeleleni, cinga ngemoto ene-hydrogen efana nepetroli yesintu okanye imoto yedizili. Ngenxa yoko, iiseli ze-hydrogen fuel kwiimoto zenzelwe ukuhlala ubomi besithuthi esiqhelekileyo, esinomgangatho ofanayo, ukuqina kunye nokuthembeka njengaso nasiphi na esinye isithuthi.

Inzuzo ephambili yeeseli ze-hydrogen fuel kukuba Zivelisa umbane ngaphandle kokukhupha izinto ezingcolisa umoya eziyingozi kwindalo esingqongileyo. Ukuphela kwemveliso ebalulekileyo ngamanzi, okwenza ukuba iinqwelo zeeseli ze-hydrogen ziqwalaselwe "zero emissions." Ukongeza, banikezela ngokuzimela okukhulu xa kuthelekiswa neebhetri zemoto zombane zemveli, ekubeni inkqubo yokuhlaziya ikhawuleza kwaye ithelekiseka nokuzalisa itanki yepetroli.

Ezinye izibonelelo zokusebenzisa ibhetri yehydrogen ezimotweni zezi:

  • Azikho izinto ezikhutshwayo zasekhaya: Ekuphela kokukhutshwa okuveliswayo ngumphunga wamanzi, onegalelo elikhulu ekunciphiseni ukungcoliseka komoya kunye nomgangatho womoya kwiindawo ezidolophini.
  • Ukuzimela okwandisiweyo: Iimoto zeeseli ze-hydrogen zinokuhamba ixesha elide ngaphambi kokuba zifune ukutshajwa, zizenze zilungele ukuhamba umgama omde.
  • Ukuhlawulwa ngokukhawuleza: ukugcwalisa itanki ye-hydrogen kunokuthatha imizuzu embalwa nje, kufana nexesha elithathayo ukugcwalisa itanki yepetroli.
  • Ukuguquguquka kokusetyenziswa: Iiseli zeHydrogen zingasetyenziswa kwiinkqubo ezahlukeneyo, kungekhona kwizithuthi kuphela, kodwa nakwiinkqubo zamandla ezimileyo ezifana neejenereyitha kunye neenkqubo zamandla zokulondoloza.
  • Ukusebenza kwamandla: Iiseli zamafutha e-Hydrogen zinokusebenza ngakumbi ngokwemigaqo yokuguqulwa kwamandla xa kuthelekiswa neenjini eziqhelekileyo zokutsha zangaphakathi.
  • Igalelo kumandla ahlaziyekayo: Ihydrogen esetyenziswa kwiiseli zamafutha ehydrogen inokuveliswa kwimithombo ehlaziyekayo, efana namandla elanga nawomoya, ngenkqubo ebizwa ngokuba yi-electrolysis.

Iingxaki zeeseli zehydrogen ezimotweni

Ngelixa kuyinyani ukuba i-hydrogen yenye yezona zinto zibalaseleyo zekhemikhali kwitafile ye periodic ngenxa yokuba kwenzeka kaninzi kangakanani, ukuyifumana akukho nto ilula.

IHydrojeni yigesi engenabungozi ngokupheleleyo kubushushu begumbi kunye noxinzelelo, kodwa i-hydrogen ngokwayo ayikho nje ngokuba inokuqokelelwa. Akukho hydrogen emhlabeni, yaye ayikhuli nasemithini. Ubukho bayo bunxulumene nezinye izinto esizidingayo ukuzohlula: umzekelo, amanzi, i-H2O, yenziwe ngama-athomu amabini e-hydrogen kunye ne-athomu ye-oksijini enye.

Ukwahlula ihydrogen (H2), amanzi kufuneka ahlulwe abe ngumbane ngenkqubo yokwenziwa kwegesi ebizwa ngokuba yi-electrolysis. Isixa esikhulu samandla siyafuneka ukufumana ioksijini (O) kwelinye icala kunye nehydrogen esulungekileyo (H2) ukuyigcina kwelinye icala.

I-Hydrogen inokufunyanwa ngokuguqulwa kwe-hydrocarbon, i-hydrocarbon okanye i-biomass gasification, i-bakteria encinci okanye i-algae bioproduction, kunye nokuhamba ngebhayisikile ye-thermochemical (ukusebenzisa inyukliya okanye amandla elanga).

Enye imiba enzima kakhulu ehambelana ne-hydrogen kukugcinwa kwayo. Yirhasi eguquguqukayo ngokugqithisileyo enoxinzelelo lwe-0,0899 kg/m3 kuphela, ngoko ke ukugcina le gesi phantsi koxinzelelo kuthetha ukongeza izinto ezinzima kakhulu ukuyigcina kwitanki. Ngetekhnoloji yangoku akunakwenzeka ukuqinisekisa ilahleko, ikakhulu ngenxa yokuzalisa/ukukhupha iivalvu.

Ukongeza, kukho umba we-refueling: akukho lula. ESpain, apho ngoku sinenethiwekhi engazinzanga, kukho izityalo ezisixhenxe ze-hydrogen: ezimbini eHuesca, enye eZaragoza, enye eMadrid, enye e-Albacete, enye ePuertollano, enye eSeville. Ngo-2017 kwaxelwa kwangaphambili ukuba kunokubakho izityalo ze-hydrogen ezingama-20 ngo-2020, kodwa inyaniso ihluke kakhulu.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neeseli zamafutha e-hydrogen ezimotweni kunye neempawu zazo.


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