Uyenza njani i-biodiesel yasekhaya

Inkonkxa ene-bio-fuel, i-sunflower biodiesel

Yenza i-biodiesel yethu ngeoyile entsha okanye esele isetyenzisiwe kunokwenzeka nangona ineengxaki ezithile.

Kule nqaku ndiza kukuxelela indlela yokwenza i-biodiesel ukongeza kwezi ngxaki zikhankanyiweyo, kodwa into yokuqala ekufuneka uyenzile kukwazi ukuba siza kwenza ntoni.

IBiodiesel yi ulwelo oluyimbumbulu olufunyenwe kwioyile yemifuno rapeseed, ujongilanga kunye neembotyi zesoya kungoku nje zezona zinto zisetyenzisiweyo, nangona ukufumana kwabo ngezityalo zobulembu kuyafundwa.

Iipropathi ze-biodiesel ziyafana kakhulu nedizili yemoto ngokobuninzi bayo kunye nenani le-cetane, nangona ine-flash point ephezulu kune-diesel, uphawu olwenza ukuba kube lula ukuyixuba kunye nelokugqibela ukwenzela ipetroli.

Umbutho waseMelika woVavanyo kunye neMigangatho yeZinto (I-ASTM, umbutho wamazwe aphesheya kwimigangatho esemgangathweni) ichaza i-biodiesel njenge:

"I-Monoalkyl esters yee-fatty chain fatty ezivela kwiipids ezihlaziyekayo ezinje ngeoyile yemifuno okanye amafutha ezilwanyana, kwaye zisetyenziswa kwiinjini zokucinezela ucinezelo"

kunjalo, Ezona esters ziqhelekileyo zisetyenziswa yi-methanol kunye ne-ethanol (ifunyenwe kulungiso lomdibaniso walo naluphi na uhlobo lweoyile yemifuno okanye amafutha ezilwanyana okanye kwi-esterification ye-fatty acids) ngenxa yexabiso eliphantsi kunye neenzuzo zayo zamachiza kunye nezomzimba.

Umahluko ovela kwamanye amafutha kukuba i-biofuels okanye i-biofuels ibonisa ukubaluleka kokusebenzisa iimveliso zemifuno njengezizinto ezingavunyelwanga, ngenxa yoko kubalulekile ukuba kuthathelwe ingqalelo iimpawu Iimarike zezolimo.

Kwaye ke, kufanele kuqatshelwe ukuba ukuphuhliswa kweshishini le-biofuel Akuxhomekeki ikakhulu kubukho bendawo bempahla eluhlaza, kodwa kubukho bemfuno eyaneleyo.

Ngokuqinisekisa ubukho be-biofuels, ukuphuhliswa kweemarike zakho kungasetyenziselwa khuthaza eminye imigaqo-nkqubo ezinje ngezolimo, ukuthanda ukudala imisebenzi kwicandelo laseprayimari, ukumiliselwa kwabantu kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni, uphuhliso lwamashishini kunye nemisebenzi yezolimo, kwaye kwangaxeshanye kuncitshiswe iziphumo zentlango ngenxa yokutyalwa kwezityalo zamandla.

IBiodiesel evela kudlwengulo

Ukuvunwa kwamandla ezityalo

I-ASTM ikwachaza iimvavanyo ezahlukeneyo ekufuneka zenziwe kumafutha ukuqinisekisa ukusebenza kwawo ngokuchanekileyo kuba kusetyenziswa i-biodiesel njengamafutha ezithuthi, iimpawu zeesters ezifanayo nezo zedizili kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo. .

Izinto eziluncedo nezingalunganga ze-biodiesel

Enye yeenzuzo eziphambili esinokuzifumana ekusebenziseni le biofuel endaweni yedizili yi Ulondolozo lwezixhobo zendalo Umhlaba kuba ngumthombo wamandla ahlaziyekayo.

Olunye uncedo kukuba ukuthumela ngaphandle ii-biofuelsKwimeko apho zithe zenzeka eSpain, ngale ndlela amandla ethu okuxhomekeka kumbane wefosili, eyi-80%, iyancitshiswa.

Ngokufanayo, kuyathandeka uphuhliso kunye nokulungiswa kwabantu basemaphandleni Ezinikezelwe kwimveliso yale biofuel.

Kwelinye icala, iyanceda ukuncipha kokukhutshwa kwe-CO2 kwiatmosfera, ikwasusa ingxaki yemvula eneasidi kuba ingenayo isalfure.

Ukuba yimveliso ebolayo kwaye engenayo ityhefu, yona kunciphisa ungcoliseko lomhlaba kunye nemingcipheko yetyhefu kwindawo nganye yokuchitheka ngengozi.

Igalelo ukhuseleko olukhulu kuba ine-lubricity efanelekileyo kunye nenqaku eliphezulu le-flash.

Ngokubhekisele kusilelo, sinokukhankanya uninzi njengeendleko. Ngelo xesha, ayikhuphisani nedizili eqhelekileyo.

Ngokumalunga neempawu zobugcisa, inexabiso elisezantsi lekhalori, nangona oko kungathethi ukuphulukana namandla okanye ukwanda okubonakalayo ekusebenziseni.

Ngapha koko, kunjalo uzinzo olusezantsi lwe-oxidation, oku kubalulekile xa kufikwa kugcino, kwaye ineempawu ezibandayo ezimbi, ezenza ukuba zingahambelani kumaqondo obushushu aphantsi kakhulu. Nangona kunjalo, ezi zinto zimbini zokugqibela zinokulungiswa ngokudibanisa isongezo.

Singenza njani ukuba senze i-biodiesel yethu

Fumana i-biodiesel yethu yingozi kakhulu kwiimveliso zamachiza ekufuneka sizisebenzisile kwaye kwesi sizathu ndiza kuthi la manyathelo angentla ukuze ungacingi ukuwenza ekhaya ngaphandle kokuba uthobele onke amanyathelo okhuseleko ukongeza ekubeni ngokusemthethweni eSpain, kuba akukho semthethweni ukuvelisa le biofuel.

Okokuqala kukuqala ukuvavanya ilitha yeoyile entsha kuba oku kulula ngakumbi kuneoyile esele isetyenzisiwe, nangona sizimisele ukunika le oyile yokugqibela ukusetyenziswa kwesibini. Xa ulawula ioyile entsha ungaya kwioyile esele isetyenzisiwe kwaye into oya kuyidinga ngoku yi-blender, gcinani engqondweni ukuba awungekhe uyisebenzisele enye into ukuze i-blender ibengomnye wakudala okanye ngexabiso eliphantsi.

Inkqubo

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, i-biodiesel ifunyenwe kumanqatha emvelaphi yemifuno, ethi ngokwembono yemichiza yaziwa njenge triglycerides

Imolekyuli nganye ye-triglyceride yenziwe ngeemolekyuli ezi-3 ezinamanqatha e-asidi enxulunyaniswe nemolekyuli enye ye-glycerin.

Indlela yokuphendula ekujongwe kuyo (ibizwa ngokuba ukuguqulwa) Ukwenziwa kwe-biofuel yethu kukwahlula ii-acid ezinamafutha kwi-glycerin isinceda nge-catalyst, inokuba yi-NaOH okanye i-KOH, kwaye ke ngenxa yoko sikwazi ukujoyina nokudibanisa nganye nganye kwimolekyuli ye-methanol okanye i-ethanol.

Iimveliso eziyimfuneko

Enye yeemveliso esiza kuzisebenzisa butywala. Inokuba njalo imethanoli (ezenza ii-methyl esters) okanye ethanol (ezenza ii-ethyl esters).

Apha ingxaki yokuqala ivela kuba ukuba ukhetha ukwenza i-biodiesel njenge-methanol, ndiza kukuxelela ukuba ngekhe wenze le nto yenziwe ekhaya kuba into ekhoyo ivela kwirhasi yendalo.

Nangona kunjalo, i-ethanol inokuveliswa ekhaya kwaye into ekhoyo ivela kwizityalo (okuseleyo kwioyile).

Iinkonkxa zemichiza

Icala elisezantsi lelo Ukwenza i-biodiesel ene-ethanol kunzima kakhulu kune-methanolngokuqinisekileyo ayisiyabaqalayo.

Zombini i-methanol kunye ne-ethanol zinetyhefu ekufuneka usoloko ugcina ukhuseleko engqondweni.

Ziyimichiza enetyhefu enokukufamekisa okanye ikubulale, kwaye njengokuyisela, ikwayingozi ngokuyifunxa ngesikhumba sakho nokuphefumla komphunga wayo.

Uvavanyo lwasekhaya ungasebenzisa i-barbecue fuel equlathe i-methanol nangona kufuneka ukhumbule ukuba iqondo lokucoceka kufuneka libe yi-99% Kwaye ukuba inenye into ayizukulunga njenge-ethanol echongiweyo.

Eyona nto iphambiliNjengoko besitshilo, banokuba yi-KOH okanye i-NaOH, i-potassium hydroxide kunye ne-caustic soda ngokwahlukeneyo, enye kulula ukuyifumana kunenye.

Njenge-methanol kunye ne-ethanol, isoda inokuthengwa ngokulula kodwa kunzima ukuyiphatha kune-potassium hydroxide, ekhuthazwa kakhulu kwabaqalayo.

Zombini zi-hygroscopic, oko kuthetha ukuba bathatha ngokulula ukufuma okuvela emoyeni, banciphise amandla abo okukhuthaza impendulo. Zisoloko zigcinwa kwizikhongozeli ezitywinwe ngomphunga.

Inkqubo iyafana ne-KOH njenge-NaOH, kodwa isixa kufuneka siphindaphindwe kangange-1,4 (1,4025).

Ukuxuba i-methanol kunye ne-potassium hydroxide yenza iifom Isodiyam methoxide eyonakalise kakhulu kwaye iyimfuneko kwimveliso ye-biodiesel.

Kwi-methoxide, sebenzisa izikhongozeli ezenziwe nge-HDPE (ubukhulu be-polyethylene), iglasi, intsimbi engenasici, okanye enameled.

Izinto kunye nezixhobo (yonke into kufuneka icoceke kwaye yomile)

  • Ilitha enye yeoyile yemifuno esandul 'ukuphekwa.
  • I-200 ml ye-99% ye-methanol emsulwa
  • ICatalyst, enokuba yi-potassium hydroxide (KOH) okanye isodiyam hayidroksayidi (NaOH).
  • Umxhubi omdala.
  • Ibhalansi ngesisombululo se-0,1 gr (nokuba ngcono ngesisombululo se-0,01 gr)
  • Ukulinganisa iiglasi zemethanol kunye neoyile.
  • Ikhonteyina emhlophe eguquguqukayo yelitha le-HDPE kunye nekepusi.
  • Iifanele ezimbini ezingena emlonyeni wesikhongozeli se-HDPE, enye ye-methanol enye ye-catalyst.
  • Ibhotile ye-PET yeelitha ezimbini (amanzi aqhelekileyo okanye ibhotile yesoda) yentsimbi
  • Iibhotile ezimbini zePET zeplastikhi ezimbini zokuhlamba.
  • Ithemometha.

Ukhuseleko, kubaluleke kakhulu

Kule nto kufuneka sithathele ingqalelo amanyathelo okhuseleko aliqela kunye nezinto zokukhusela ezinje:

  • Iiglavu ezinganyangekiyo kwimveliso esiza kuyiphatha, ezi kufuneka zibe nde ukuze zikhusele imikhono kwaye iingalo zikhuselwe ngokupheleleyo.
  • Iapron kunye neiglasi zokukhusela umzimba wonke.
  • Soloko unamanzi abalekayo kufutshane xa uphatha ezi mveliso.
  • Indawo yokusebenzela kufuneka ibe nomoya owaneleyo.
  • Musa ukuphefumla iigesi. Kule nto kukho iimaski ezikhethekileyo.
  • Akunakubakho bantu ngaphandle kwenkqubo, abantwana, okanye izilwanyana kufutshane.

Ngaba unokwenza i-biodiesel kulo naliphi na ikhaya?

Ukongeza isuntswana lehlaya kubuzaza obunje kuthotho "Lowo uzayo" ujongeka ulula kakhulu ngegama elithi "ukuwangawangisa okuyi-gerund" kodwa enyanisweni ayisiyiyo kwaphela, ngaphandle kokuba yingozi kakhulu, kwaye ubone kuphela ezisisiseko, izixhobo.

Ngaphandle kokunika imiyalelo eneenkcukacha ezininzi, ndiyakuqinisekisa ukuba isekhona indlela ende yokwenza i-biodiesel ukusukela kuqala Ukucoca ioyile kusetyenziswa (eyona nto inomdla kuthi), emva koko kuya kufuneka senze i-sodium methoxide, senze impendulo eyimfuneko, sigqithise kwaye sahlule.

Ngokunjalo, kufuneka sijonge umgangatho wemveliso eyenziwe ngovavanyo lokuhlamba kwaye ekugqibeleni yokomisa.

I-biodiesel eyenziwe ekhaya eSpain

Ngaphandle kwezibonelelo ezinokuthi ziboniswe yi-biodiesel, in ISpain ngoku ayikho mthethweni ukuyenza ekhaya.

Amanye amazwe ayakuvumela ukuveliswa kwale biofuel kwaye athengise izixhobo zokuvelisa ukuze nabani na onamanyathelo afanelekileyo okhuseleko akwazi ukuyenza.

Imveliso ye-biodiesel eyenziwe ekhaya

Ngokwam, Nazi izinto ezi-2 zokungabikho mthethweni kwe-biodiesel eyenziwe ekhaya.

Eyokuqala kukuba iSpain iyasikhathalela kwaye bayivalile imveliso yayo ngenxa yobungozi bayo oku kubandakanya ukuphatha imichiza eyingozi.

Okwesibini kukuba iSpain ayinomdla kwinto yokuba nawuphina ummi angavelisa ii-biofuels Umdla kwezoqoqosho.

Ngayiphi na imeko, ngokungathandabuzekiyo imele ukubopha ukuya kutshintsho olunokubakho kumandla.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.