Iintsomi ze-osmosis yamanzi

iintsomi ze-osmosis yamanzi

I-osmosis yamanzi yinkqubo yendalo eyenzeka xa izisombululo ezibini ezinezigxina ezahlukeneyo ze-solutes zihlulwe yi-membrane e-semipermeable. Le inwebu ivumela iimolekyuli zamanzi ukuba zidlule ngokukhululekileyo, kodwa ayivumeli amasuntswana e-solute amakhulu ukuba adlule. Ngenxa yoko, iimolekyuli zamanzi zivame ukuhamba ukusuka kwisisombululo esincinci ukuya kwisisombululo esigxininisiweyo kude kube kufikeleleke kwi-equilibrium. Le nkqubo isetyenziselwa ukucoca amanzi kunye nokunyusa umgangatho wamanzi aphuma etephini. Nangona kunjalo, kukho ezininzi iintsomi ze-osmosis yamanzi mayikhanyelwe loo nto.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba zeziphi iintsomi ze-osmosis yamanzi, iimpawu zayo kunye nokunye okuninzi.

Isihluzo seosmosis sisetyenziselwa ntoni?

amanzi etephu

Incasa yamanzi epompo kwimimandla ethile yasezidolophini inokuba namandla kakhulu, ngakumbi ngenxa yesiqulatho sawo seminerali ephezulu, ekwabizwa ngokuba yi "lime." Oku kudla ngokukhokelela abantu abaninzi ukuba bakhethe amanzi asebhotileni. Kutshanje, umkhwa ovelayo ubandakanya ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo zokucoca i-osmosis njengenye indlela, kodwa kubalulekile ukuba silumke. Ezi zixhobo zisenokungasebenzi okanye zibe luncedo njengoko zibhengeziwe. Enyanisweni, kwezinye iimeko, zinokuwenza mandundu umgangatho wamanzi endaweni yokuphucula. Ukongezelela, ezi zixhobo zinokuchitha amanzi amaninzi.

Iinkqubo ze-osmosis ezibuyela ekhaya ezifumanekayo ukuba zithengwe ezihlala phantsi kwe-sinki kunye nomsebenzi omncinci we-faucet ngokulula. Ngokubanzi, Zihlalutywa ngokwemigaqo ye-4 okanye i-5 yazo izihlungi, emele amanyathelo ahlukeneyo enkqubo yokucoca amanzi.

Inkqubo ye-Osmosis kwisihluzo samanzi

ibhinqa elisela amanzi

Isihluzo se<em>osmosis sinokufaniswa nesisefo, esinemingxuma emincinane kangangokuba kungadlula amanzi kuphela, ngoxa ezinye izinto ezingcolileyo, njengetyuwa nezinye izinto, zibanjiswa. Nangona inkqubo inzima ngakumbi kunokucoca okulula, Akukho mfuneko yokuba uphengulule kwizinto ezintsonkothileyo. Oku kufana nokubona iathom, apho undoqo nguMhlaba kunye nee-electron zijikeleza kuwo njengesathelayithi. Nangona oku kungachanekanga ngokupheleleyo, kunika umbono oqhelekileyo wembono.

Izigaba zokuqala zenkqubo zijolise ekususeni ukungcola okunokuthi kubekho emanzini kwinqanaba elikhulu, elinokuthi lisuswe ngokwezoqoqosho ngaphambi kokuba lifike kwi-osmosis membranes. Oku kunciphisa umsebenzi ofunekayo kunye nokwandisa ubomi beembrane.

Isihluzo esithathelwa ingqalelo apha sisihluzo sentlenga esisetyenziswa ikakhulu ukususa amasuntswana esanti okanye iinkozo zekalika ezinokuba zikhona emanzini. Umthamo wayo wokucoca ulinganiselwe kwiinqununu ezinkulu kune-5 microns, ezilingana ne-0,005 millimeters. Ikhabhoni esebenzayo, zombini kwi-granular kunye ne-block form, isetyenziswe kwisigaba sesibini kunye nesesithathu sezi nkqubo.

Inkqubo yokufumana izinto ezikwazi ukuphelisa amacandelo athile ifuna unyango lwezityalo ezihlala ezifana namaqokobhe amantongomane, iinkuni okanye ixolo le coconut kunye nokudibanisa iigesi ezivuthayo kunye nomphunga wamanzi kumaqondo aphezulu okushisa. Ukusebenzisa le ndlela, kuveliswa izinto eziqulethe inani elibalulekileyo lee-pores kunye neengqungquthela. Ezi mpawu zinamandla okuphelisa amacandelo athile ngokusebenzisa i-adsorption phenomenon.

Injongo ephambili yokusetyenziswa kwayo kukuphelisa ivumba elibi. Ukongezelela, kumxholo wamanzi okusela, nazo zisetyenziselwa ukususa i-chlorine. Ukunciphisa ukuqina kwamanzi, I-resin yotshintshiselwano ye-cation ihlala ibandakanyiwe kwinkqubo, eyenza umsebenzi ofanayo kunye netyuwa yokulahla ityuwa efunyenwe kwiidishwashers. Eli candelo lijongene nokunciphisa ubunzima bamanzi.

Ngaphakathi kweejagi zokucoca ezaziwayo-kakuhle kukho ikhatriji esebenzayo eyenziwe ngekhabhoni kunye neresin. Ngokusebenzisa le ndibaniselwano, i-cartridge iyakwazi ukususa ngempumelelo i-chlorine (kwikhabhoni) kunye nokunciphisa izinga lobunzima bamanzi (ukusuka kwi-resin).

Inqanaba lesine liquka ukupheliswa kwezinto ezihlala ziqinile, i-chlorine kunye neetyuwa. Emva koko, amanzi angena kwi-osmosis membrane filtration, esusa ngokufanelekileyo phantse zonke izinto ezingcolileyo ezazikhona emanzini.

Ukukhawulezisa le nkqubo ngokuthe ngcembe, kukho isitya esiqokelela amanzi, esivumela ukuba asetyenziswe ngokukhawuleza ngaphandle kokulinda. Esi sikhongozeli saziwa njengetanki.

Inqanaba lesihlanu nelokugqibela lenkqubo Ibandakanya ukongezwa kwesihluzo esincinci sekhabhoni esisebenzayo emva kokuba idiphozithi yenziwe. Esi sihluzo sisetyenziselwa ukubeka ucocilelo kwimveliso.

Iintsomi ze-osmosis yamanzi

iintsomi ze-osmosis zamanzi epompo

Xa kuqwalaselwa iingenelo kunye neengozi zesihloko esinikiweyo, kubalulekile ukulinganisa amacala omabini engxabano. Nangona kusenokubakho iinzuzo kule nkqubo, kukwakho nemiqobo enokuthi ithathelwe ingqalelo. Ngokuphonononga ngononophelo zombini iingenelo kunye nezingeloncedo, Isigqibo esisekelwe kulwazi sinokwenziwa esithathela ingqalelo yonke imiba efanelekileyo.

Okokuqala, siza kuhlolisisa iingenelo zokwenyani kunye nokungonakali kwezi zixhobo.

Inzuzo

  • Nciphisa iindleko zombini xa undwendwela ivenkile enkulu njengakwizothutho, inokuvelisa ukonga okukhulu. Ngokuqinisekileyo kuyinyaniso ukuba ukuba ubani uyayeka ukuthenga amanzi amaminerali asebhotileni, akukho mfuneko yokuba aye kwivenkile enkulu ukuze afumane amanzi kuphela.
  • Xa kuthelekiswa nexabiso lamanzi anezimbiwa. ungagcina imali.
  • Inzuzo yale nzame ixhomekeke kwiindleko zokuqala zesixhobo, kunye neendleko ezifunyenwe ngokuthenga iinxalenye ezisecaleni kunye nokwenza uhlolo oluyimfuneko. Uhlalutyo olucokisekileyo lwezemali luyacetyiswa ukuze kubonwe ukusebenza kolu tyalo-mali. Nangona kunjalo, ayinakuphikiswa ukuba ukuphumeza lo mlinganiselo wokonga iindleko, njengokuyeka ukuthenga amanzi asebhotileni, kunokukhokelela kwinzuzo enkulu yemali.
  • Indlela esebenzayo yokunciphisa ukuveliswa kweeplastiki kukuphepha ukuthenga amanzi asebhotileni.
  • Xa amanzi equlethe isixa esikhulu seetyuwa ezinyibilikayo, ngakumbi i-calcium kunye ne-magnesium, ebangela isikali, kuthiwa "amanzi anzima." Ukongezwa kweklorini kumanzi anzima yinto ebangela ukunambitheka okuhlukileyo okuhlala kuhambelana nayo, ngenxa yokudibanisa zombini iimpawu. Yiyo loo nto iingqayi zokucoca zisebenza kakuhle ekuphuculeni incasa yonke yamanzi anzima.

Iingxaki

Ukusetyenziswa kakubi kwamanzi yeyona nto ixhalabisayo kwindalo esingqongileyo. Inkcitho engakhathaliyo yalo mthombo uxabisekileyo yingxaki ethe gqolo efuna ingqalelo ekhawulezileyo.

Ngexesha lenkqubo yokudlula kwisihluzi se-osmosis, kuphela inxalenye yamanzi ilawula ukudlula kwi-membrane. Inxalenye yamanzi enokuhluzwa inomlinganiselo ophantsi kakhulu weeminerali kwaye yintoni oya kuyidla, ngelixa amanye amanzi aqulethe zonke izimbiwa ahlala kwaye agxininise ngakumbi, ekugqibeleni alahlwe. Abavelisi banokubanga ukuba kukho umlinganiselo we-1 inxalenye ehluziweyo ukuya kwi-4 yamacandelo alahliweyo, kodwa ngokwenene, eli nani lihlala liphezulu kakhulu kwaye kunzima ukufezekisa. Asinto ingaqhelekanga ukuba namanani ukusuka ku-1 ukuya kwi-10, kwaye ukuba izixhobo azikhethwanga kakuhle okanye uxinzelelo lwenethiwekhi alunelanga, la manani angaphinda aphindwe kabini okanye amathathu.

Isenokungaqatshelwa into yokuba amanzi amoshakeleyo ehla ngokuthe ngqo kumsele kwaye, ngenxa yexabiso eliphantsi lamanzi etephu, nawo akabonakali kwityala. Noko ke, ngelishwa inyaniso yeyokuba ngenxa yokungasebenzi kakuhle kwamanzi, amanzi alahlwayo aphantse afane nomgangatho ofanayo namanzi etephu.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neenkolelo ze-osmosis yamanzi.


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