Iindidi zezityalo zombane

iintlobo zezityalo zombane

Izityalo zombane owenziwe ngamanzi zisikelwe umda kwizinto ezikhethekileyo kunye neempawu zemimandla yazo. Xa uqala olu hlobo lofakelo, kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba i-topography yomhlaba inquma ukhetho lwemisebenzi yoluntu kunye noomatshini. Kukho ezahlukeneyo iintlobo zezityalo zombane ngokuxhomekeke kwindawo kunye nendlela yokuvelisa amandla omoya.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga neentlobo ezahlukeneyo zezityalo zamandla ombane kunye neempawu zazo.

Isikhululo samandla ombane

ukusebenza kwamandla okwenziwa ngolwelo

Xa siqalisa umzi-mveliso wokuvelisa umbane ngamanzi, sifuna ukukwazi ukuvelisa amandla kumanzi agcinwe kwidama. Into yokuqala ekufuneka yenziwe kukuvelisa amandla oomatshini kwaye iguqulwe ibe ngamandla ombane.

Injongo yenkqubo yokubambisa kukwenza ithambeka elenza amandla agciniweyo anokubakho. Amanzi athontsiza ezantsi ukuze afumane amandla ngokwahlukana komxhuzulane. Njengoko amanzi edlula kwi-injini yomoya, yenza intshukumo ejikelezayo enika amandla i-alternator, iguqula amandla oomatshini abe ngumbane.

Ubume beplanti yombane oqhutywa ngamanzi budlula kumalungu abumbayo. Ukuqala ngedama, le yeyona nto ibalulekileyo kuba lilo elijongene nokugcina amanzi kwindawo yokugcina amanzi. Kule tanki kukho ukuphuphuma ivumela ukuhluzwa kwamanzi angaphezulu ngaphandle kokudlula kwi-injini yomoya.

Eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu kwiplanti yombane osebenza ngamanzi ngumtshabalalisi wamandla, othintela amanzi amaninzi ukuba abangele umonakalo omkhulu emhlabeni. Amanzi asetyenzisiweyo ahlala edlula kwi-cabin. Ukongeza kwindawo yokulawula, kukho ii-turbines kunye nee-alternators. Iiturbines ziguqula amandla oomatshini abe ngamandla ekinetic. Kwangaxeshanye, ialternator iguqula la mandla ekinetic abe ngumbane.

Ekugqibeleni, imibhobho yimibhobho eqondisa amanzi apho afanele ukuya khona. Emva koko, iivalve yimijelo elawula ukuhamba kwamanzi kule mibhobho, ekhusela amanzi ukuba angaphumi.

Iindidi zezityalo zombane

iintlobo zezityalo zamandla ombane

Ngaphakathi komda weli candelo, kukho iindidi ezininzi zezityalo zombane, eziya kuxhomekeka kumandla azo kunye nobungakanani bamandla ombane abanokuwagcina. Ke ngoko, iintlobo zezityalo zamandla ombane zinokuba:

  • Izityalo zombane wamanzi aphezulu: zizityalo ezivelisa umbane ngamanzi ezinamandla angaphezu kwe-10MW
  • IziTyalo zoMbane waManzi amancinci – Zizizityalo ezivelisa umbane ngamanzi ezinamandla aphakathi kwe-1MW kunye ne-10MW
  • IziTyalo zoMbane oNcinci – Zizizityalo ezivelisa umbane ngamanzi ezinamandla angaphantsi kwe-1MW

Olunye uguquko olumisela uhlobo lwezityalo ezivelisa umbane ngamanzi ngumhlaba ezikuwo. Sifumene oku kulandelayo:

  • Izityalo zombane oqhutywa ngamanzi eziqhubekayo: Ezi zityalo zokwenza umbane ngamanzi azinazo iindawo zokugcina amanzi, ngoko ke zifuna ukuhamba komlambo okuphezulu ngokwaneleyo ukuvelisa amandla. Ukungalungi kwayo kukuba ayivelisi amandla ngexesha lembalela.
  • Indawo yokugcina uMbane woMbane woMbane: kulo mzekelo, idama yindawo yokugcina eyenziweyo apho umthamo omkhulu wamanzi unyuka ngaphezu kwee turbines. Ngomlinganiselo onjalo, unokulawula ubungakanani bamanzi adlula kuwo kunye namandla avelisiweyo.
  • Isikhululo sombane osebenza ngamanzi emazantsi edama: kule meko, icandelo lomlambo okanye ichibi lithathwa kwaye idama lakhiwe, libeka ii-turbines emva kwayo.

Ukusebenza kweentlobo zezityalo zombane

amandla ombane

Siza kubona nganye nganye ukusebenza kweentlobo zezityalo zamandla ombane:

  • Izityalo zombane oqhutywa ngamanzi eziqhubekayo: Olu lusetyenziso apho inxalenye yamanzi omlambo ijikiswa ngokuthathwa kwaye iqhutywe ngomjelo okanye umbhobho kwisikhululo sombane apho iiinjini zomoya zenziwa khona. Akuba efunyenwe amandla, amanzi ajikiweyo abuyiselwa emlanjeni.
  • Embindini emazantsi edama: Ukongeza kumanzi emvula kunye ne-meltwater, kuyenzeka kwakhona ukwakha amadama kwindawo yomlambo ukugcina iminikelo yawo. Eyona nto iphambili kukukwazi ukulawula ukuphuma kwamanzi kunye nokuqhuba i-turbine xa kuyimfuneko.

Kukho uhlobo lwesikhululo samandla ombane okwenziwa ngumjelo wokunkcenkceshela. Zimbini iindidi zezityalo zohlulwa kweli qela:

  • Abo bathatha ithuba lokungalingani okukhoyo kumjelo ngokwawo, ukufaka i-penstocks, ngokuhambelana nomzila we-canal, ukuhambisa amanzi kwisityalo kwaye emva koko uyibuyisele kwindlela eqhelekileyo yomjelo.
  • Ezo zithatha ithuba lokungalingani phakathi komjelo kunye nomlambo okufutshane. Isityalo sifakwe kufuphi nomlambo kwaye amanzi angaphezulu aphathwa ngee turbines kumjelo.

Izinto ezilungileyo zamandla ombane owenziwe ngamanzi

Njengoko ubona, oku kuzisa izibonelelo ezinkulu kubemi kwaye hayi kuphela kwinqanaba lamandla. Masidibanise ezi zibonelelo ukuze sizicazulule nganye nganye:

  • Ngamandla ahlaziyekayo. Oko kukuthi, ayipheli ekuhambeni kwexesha njengoko amafutha efosili enokwenza. Amanzi ngokwawo akanamda, kodwa kuyinyaniso ukuba indalo ihlala isinika imvula. Ngale ndlela sinokuchacha kwaye siqhubeke siyisebenzisa njengomthombo wamandla.
  • Ukuba yindalo ngokupheleleyo kunye nokuhlaziywa akungcolisi. Ngamandla acocekileyo.
  • Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, ayisixhamli kuphela kwigalelo lamandla, kodwa ikwadityaniswa nezinye izinto ezinje ngokukhusela kwizikhukula, ukunkcenkceshela, ukuhanjiswa kwamanzi, ukwenziwa kweendlela, ukhenketho okanye ukulungiswa komhlaba.
  • Ngokuchasene nenkolelo ethandwayo, zombini iindleko zokusebenza kunye nokugcinwa ziphantsi. Emva kokuba idama kunye nenkqubo yonke yokutsala amanzi yakhiwe, ulondolozo aluntsonkothanga kwaphela.
  • Ngokungafaniyo nezinye iintlobo zokusetyenziswa kwamandla, imisebenzi eyenziwayo ukuthatha ithuba lolu hlobo lwamandla inobomi obude obuluncedo.
  • Iinjini yomoya isetyenziselwa ukwenza amandla. I-injini yomoya ilula ukuyisebenzisa, ikhuselekile kwaye isebenza ngokufanelekileyo. Oku kuthetha ukuba iindleko zemveliso ziphantsi kwaye ingaqalwa kwaye imiswe ngokukhawuleza.
  • Akufuni ukuba abasebenzi baphaphe, kuba kulula ukwenza.

Inyani nje yokuba ingamandla ahlaziyekayo kwaye acocekileyo aneendleko eziphantsi sele ewenza amandla akhuphisanayo kwiimarike.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neentlobo zezityalo zamandla ombane kunye neempawu zazo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.