Iingxaki zehydrogen eluhlaza

ikamva le-hydrogen

Ihydrogen eluhlaza luhlobo lwehydrogen eveliswa ngenkqubo ebizwa ngokuba yi-electrolysis yamanzi, esebenzisa umbane osuka kwimithombo ehlaziyekayo, njengamandla elanga okanye omoya. Le teknoloji ithathwa njengenye indlela ethembisayo kumafutha e-fossil, ekubeni ukuveliswa kwe-hydrogen eluhlaza phantse akukho carbon. Nangona kunjalo, kukho ezinye iingxaki ze-hydrogen eluhlaza oko kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuyiqwalasela njengenye indlela esemthethweni kumafutha efosili.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ngeengxaki eziphambili ze-hydrogen eluhlaza, iimpawu zayo, iingenelo kunye nokungonakali.

imveliso ye-hydrogen eluhlaza

umoya ovuselelekayo

IHydrojeni inamandla okugcina amandla anokusetyenziswa xa kufuneka. Oku akunto intsha. Kodwa ihydrogen asiyodwa eMhlabeni. Ihlala idityaniswe kwezinye iimolekyuli ukuze zenze izinto. Eyona ilula: amanzi kunye nefomula yayo eyaziwayo yemolekyuli H2O. Iiathom ezimbini zehydrogen zibotshelelwa kwioksijini enye.

Kodwa ikwafumaneka nakwizibaso zefosili njengemethane okanye i-liquefied petroleum. Ngelo xesha, I-99% ye-hydrogen yaseSpain ivela kula mathambo. Ngokutsho kweInternational Energy Agency, ukuthengwa kwehydrogen ehlabathini lonke kuvelisa iitoni ezimalunga nezigidi ezingama-900 zekharbon diokside nyaka ngamnye.

Ukuqokelela i-hydrogen kwi-feedstock ecocekileyo njengamanzi, kuyimfuneko ukusebenzisa umsinga wombane kuyo ukwahlula izinto zayo kwaye ugcine i-hydrogen yodwa. Ukuba umbane osetyenziswe kwinkqubo ye-electrolysis uvela kwimithombo evuselelekayo, efana neepaneli zelanga okanye ii-windmills, kuthiwa yi-hydrogen eluhlaza. Ngokukhupha amandla ayo agciniweyo, ayikhuphi iigesi zegreenhouse. Ngokunjalo, ijongana nengxaki yemozulu ngokuthembeka.

ukugcinwa kwamandla

Ukuba umbane oveliswa ziipaki ze-photovoltaic okanye ii-injini zomoya zisetyenziselwa ukuvelisa i-hydrogen eyahlulwe emanzini, oku kuya kusebenza njengamafutha. Ngamanye amazwi, la mandla (umbane) akalahlekanga okanye asetyenziswe xa eveliswa: I-hydrogen inokukhutshwa ngeenjini, oomatshini okanye iibhetri ezinobuchwepheshe obufanelekileyo.

I-Ofisi yoBuphathiswa beNguqu yezendalo iqaqambisa ukuba indima yayo njengogcino lwamaxesha onyaka iya kuba ngundoqo, kuthathelwa ingqalelo ukusetyenziswa kwamandla avuselelekayo entsalela kwinkqubo yombane ohlaziyekayo. Oku kuya kuba sesinye sezisombululo zokulawula ukuveliswa kombane xa izixhobo ezivuselelekayo zinqabile.

Iingxaki zehydrogen eluhlaza

iingxaki ze-hydrogen eluhlaza kwimveliso

Ingxaki kufuneka ibe yindleko kunye nobunzima bemveliso. Okokuqala, nangona i-hydrogen yenye yezona zinto zininzi emhlabeni, ayifumaneki lula kuba ayifumaneki yodwa kwindalo, kodwa endaweni yoko. iveliswa kwezinye izinto ezinehydrogen, njengamanzi, amalahle, kunye negesi yendalo. Indlela efanelekileyo yokuyivelisa iya kuba kukufumana ngokuthe ngqo emanzini (akhoyo kwi-70% yomhlaba) ngenkqubo ebizwa ngokuba yi-electrolysis, equka ukubola kweemolekyuli zamanzi (H2O), ezibolileyo zibe yioksijini (O2) kunye ne-hydrogen (H2).

Nangona kunjalo, oku ngokuqhelekileyo kuyinkqubo ebiza kakhulu efuna umbane omningi (kungekhona kwimithombo ehlaziyiweyo kwiimeko ezininzi) ukunika amandla i-electrolysers. Ubunzima bokufumana i-100% ye-hydrogen ecocekileyo ibangele abavelisi ukuba bahlele iimveliso ezibangelwayo ngokwexabiso labo elizinzileyo. Ngaloo ndlela, i<em>hydrogen engwevu, esetyenziswa kakhulu ngoku, yeyona ingenabungozi kokusingqongileyo, ekubeni imveliso yayo iqhubeka ifuna amafutha efosili.

Njengenye indlela, "i-blue okanye i-carbon hydrogen ephantsi" isafuna i-fuel fuels kodwa ikhupha i-carbon encinci kuba isuswe ngenkqubo eyaziwa ngokuba "yi-capture and storage." Olona khetho luluhlaza "yi-hydrogen eluhlaza" eveliswe kumandla ahlaziyekayo, I-100% enye indlela ezinzileyo kodwa eyona ixhaphakileyo kwimarike.

Kubiza malini ukuvelisa ihydrogen?

Uphando olusandul 'ukupapashwa kwiphephancwadi elikhethekileyo Nature Energy izimisele ukulinganisa iindleko zokuvelisa i-hydrogen ukusuka kumbane (ngokusebenzisa i-electrolysis) ukugqiba ukuba ngaba yinto enokurhweba. Ukwenza oku, abaphandi baqokelele idatha kwiindleko kunye namaxabiso e-hydrogen kwaye baqhathanise namaxabiso ombane kwimarike yokuthengisa kunye neenkcukacha zonyaka opheleleyo malunga nokuveliswa kwamandla omoya eJamani nase-United States.

Wagqiba kwelokuba inkqubo yomxube (evelisa i-hydrogen kumandla ahlaziyekayo, ngokuqhelekileyo umoya okanye ilanga) inokuba nengeniso kwi-3,23 euro ngekhilogram. Nangona kunjalo, uphando olufanayo luphawula ukuba iindleko ze-electrolyzers ziwa kakhulu, ezinokuthi zinciphise kakhulu iindleko zokuvelisa i-hydrogen kwimithombo ehlaziyiweyo, emele "ishumi leminyaka elipheleleyo kunye nesiqingatha" malunga nokugcinwa kwamandla.

Ngapha koko, ngokukaJavier Bray, umongameli weSpanish Hydrogen Energy Association, sele inokwenzeka ngokupheleleyo. I-Electrolysis yindlela yesibini ehlabathini ukuvelisa i-hydrogen kwi-industrial scale. Ngaphezu koko, yindlela ecocekileyo kwaye iindleko zayo zihambelana ngokuthe ngqo nombane osetyenziswayo kwimveliso yayo. Kwingcali, amaxabiso angaphantsi kwe-2,5 cents kWh nganye asinika amaxabiso amalunga ne-2,5 euros ngekhilogram, okwenza kube sisisombululo esisebenzayo sokuchithwa kwekhabhoni kumacandelo afana noshishino, ukuthutha okanye amandla.

Inzuzo

iingxaki ze-hydrogen eluhlaza

Nangona ngoku iyeyona incinci ivelisiweyo kwimarike, ineenzuzo ezinkulu ezihlala kumandla ayo amakhulu:

  • ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa: Ukuveliswa kunye nokusetyenziswa kwe-hydrogen eluhlaza akukhuphi i-carbon dioxide okanye ezinye izinto ezingcolileyo zendawo, ezinegalelo ngokuthe ngqo ekunciphiseni ukukhutshwa kwegesi ye-greenhouse kwaye inceda ekulweni nokutshintsha kwemozulu.
  • Ugcino lwamandla olusebenzayo: Ihydrogen eluhlaza inokugcinwa lula, iyenze ibe sisisombululo esinomtsalane sokugcina amandla ahlaziyekayo ngamaxesha apho imfuno iphantsi kunye nemveliso iphezulu.
  • izicelo ezininzi: Ingasetyenziselwa ukunika amandla izithuthi zombane zeeseli zamafutha, njengamafutha ejenereyitha zombane kumashishini, nanjengesixhobo ekrwada kwimveliso yeekhemikhali kunye nezichumisi.
  • Ukuzimela kwamandla: Ngokuthembela kwimithombo yamandla ahlaziyekayo kwimveliso yayo, i-hydrogen eluhlaza inciphisa ukuthembela kumafutha efosili avela kumazwe angaphandle kunye nokuguquguquka kwexabiso okuyanyaniswa nezi zixhobo zingahlaziyekiyo.
  • Amafutha acocekileyo oshishino: I-hydrogen eluhlaza inikezela ngokukhethwa kwamafutha acocekileyo kunye nokugcinwa koshishino, ngaloo ndlela inciphisa impembelelo yayo yokusingqongileyo kunye negalelo kwinguqu eya kuqoqosho lwekhabhoni ephantsi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neengxaki ze-hydrogen eluhlaza, iimpawu zayo kunye neenzuzo ezinazo.


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