iindawo zeseli

onke amalungu eseli Siyazi ukuba iseli yiyunithi esisiseko yokusebenza kwazo zonke izihlunu kwizilwanyana nakwizityalo. Kule meko, izilwanyana zibhekwa njengezinto eziphilayo ezininzi, ngoko zineeseli ezingaphezu kwesinye. Uhlobo lweeseli ehlala inazo yiseli ye-eukaryotic kwaye ibonakala ngokuba ne-nucleus yokwenyani kunye nee-organelles ezikhethekileyo. Nangona kunjalo, kukho ezahlukeneyo iinxalenye zeseli kwaye nganye kuzo inomsebenzi owahlukileyo.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga neendawo ezahlukeneyo zeseli kwaye yintoni umahluko omkhulu phakathi kweseli yesilwanyana kunye neseli yesityalo.

iindawo zeseli

iinxalenye zeseli yesilwanyana

Core

Yi-organelle ekhethekileyo ekuqhubeni nasekuphatheni ulwazi lweselula. Iiseli ze-Eukaryotic zihlala zine-nucleus enye, kodwa kukho iimeko apho sinokufumana iinuclei ezininzi. Imilo yale organelle iyahluka ngokuxhomekeke kwiseli ekuyo, kodwa idla ngokuba yingqukuva. Izinto zofuzo zigcinwe kuyo ngendlela ye-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), ejongene nokulungelelanisa imisebenzi yeseli: ukusuka ekukhuleni ukuya ekuzalweni. Kukho nesakhiwo esibonakalayo ngaphakathi kwe-nucleus ebizwa ngokuba yi-nucleolus, eyenziwa yi-concentration ye-chromatin kunye neprotheni. Iiseli zeMammalian zine-nucleoli enye ukuya kwe-1.

i-plasma membrane kunye ne-cytoplasm

icytoplasm

I-plasma inwebu sisakhiwo esijikeleze iseli kwaye sikhona kuzo zonke iiseli eziphilayo. Ijongene nokuvala le mixholo kunye nokukhusela kwimeko yangaphandle, oku akuthethi ukuba yinwebu yokutywina kuba inemingxuma kunye nezinye izinto ekufuneka iimolekyuli ezithile zidlule kuzo ukuze ziqhube iinkqubo zangaphakathi zeseli yesilwanyana.

I-cytoplasm yeeseli zezilwanyana yindawo phakathi kwe-membrane ye-cytoplasmic kunye ne-nucleus, ejikeleze zonke ii-organelles. Yenziwe ngama-70% amanzi kwaye okuseleyo ngumxube weeprotheyini, iilipids, iicarbohydrates kunye neetyuwa zeminerali. Le medium ibalulekile kuphuhliso lweseli.

I-endoplasmic reticulum kunye nezixhobo zeGolgi

I-endoplasmic reticulum yi-organelle ngendlela yeengxowa ezinqamlekileyo kunye nee-tubules ezifakwe phezulu komnye nomnye, zabelana ngendawo yangaphakathi efanayo. I-reticulum ihlelwe ngokwemimandla emininzi: i-endoplasmic reticulum erhabaxa, enenwebu ecaba kunye ne-ribosomes ehambelana nayo, kunye ne-endoplasmic reticulum egudileyo, imbonakalo engaqhelekanga kwaye ngaphandle kweeribosomes ezinxulumene nazo.

Iseti yee-membrane ezinjengetanki ezinoxanduva lokusasaza kunye nokuhanjiswa kweemveliso zeekhemikhali ukusuka kwiseli, oko kukuthi, liziko lokukhuselwa kwamaselula. Ibunjwe njengeGolgi complex okanye i-apparatus yeseli yesityalo kwaye iqulethe iinxalenye ezintathu: i-membrane sac, i-tubules apho izinto zihanjiswa khona kwaye ziphuma kwiseli, kwaye ekugqibeleni i-vacuole.

I-Centrosome, i-cilia kunye ne-flagella

I-centrosome luphawu lweeseli zezilwanyana kwaye i-cylindrical structure engenanto eyenziwe ngeecentrioles ezimbini. zicwangciswe perpendicular omnye komnye. Ukubunjwa kwale organelle yenziwe ngeeprotein tubules, ezinomsebenzi obaluleke kakhulu kwi-cell division kuba ziququzelela i-cytoskeleton kwaye zivelise i-spindle ngexesha le-mitosis. Iyakwazi ukuvelisa i-cilia okanye i-flagella.

I-cilia kunye ne-flagella yeeseli zezilwanyana zi-appendages ezenziwe ngama-microtubules anika i-fluidity kwiseli. Zikhona kwizinto eziphilayo ze-unicellular kwaye zinoxanduva lokuhamba kwazo, ngelixa kwezinye iiseli zisetyenziselwa ukuphelisa imisebenzi yendalo okanye imizwa. Ngokomlinganiselo, i-cilia ininzi kakhulu kune-flagella.

i-mitochondria kunye ne-cytoskeleton

I-Mitochondria yi-organelles kwiiseli zezilwanyana apho izondlo zifika kwaye ziguqulwa zibe ngamandla kwinkqubo ebizwa ngokuba kukuphefumla. Zinde ngokumila kwaye zineenwebu ezimbini: inwebu yangaphakathi esongelwe ukwenza icristae kunye nenwebu yangaphandle egudileyo. Inani le-mitochondria elikhoyo kwiseli nganye lixhomekeke kumsebenzi wabo (umzekelo, kwiiseli ze-muscle kuya kuba nenani elikhulu le-mitochondria).

Ukugqiba uluhlu lweendawo eziphambili zeeseli zezilwanyana, sibhekisela kwi-cytoskeleton. Yenziwe ngesethi yeefilaments ekhoyo kwi-cytoplasm kwaye, ngaphezu komsebenzi wayo wokubumba iiseli, nayo inomsebenzi wokuxhasa i-organelles.

Umahluko phakathi kwesilwanyana kunye neseli yezityalo

Umahluko phakathi kwesilwanyana kunye neseli yezityalo

Kukho iiyantlukwano eziphambili kumalungu esilwanyana kunye neseli yesityalo. Makhe sibone ukuba yintoni umahluko ophambili:

  • Iiseli zezityalo Inodonga lweseli ngaphandle kwenwebu yeplasma esingenalo isilwanyana. Ingathi sisigqubuthelo sesibini esisigquma ngcono. Olu donga lunika ukuqina okukhulu kunye nokukhusela okukhulu. Olu donga luqulunqwe nge-cellulose, i-lignin kunye nezinye izinto. Amanye amacandelo eludongeni lweeseli anezicelo ezithile kwiindawo zorhwebo nakwishishini.
  • Ngokungafaniyo neseli yezilwanyana, iseli yesityalo inee-chloroplast ngaphakathi. Ii-chloroplast zezo zinemibala efana ne-chlorophyll okanye i-carotene evumela ukuba izityalo zenze ifotosinthesize.
  • Iiseli zezityalo ziyakwazi ukuvelisa ukutya kwazo ngenxa yezinto ezingaphiliyo. Benza oku ngokusebenzisa imeko yefotosinthesisi. Olu hlobo lwesondlo lubizwa ngokuba yi-autotrophic.
  • Iiseli zezilwanyana, kwelinye icala, azinakho ukubanakho ukuvelisa ukutya kwazo kwizinto ezingaphiliyo. Ke ngoko, isondlo sayo yi heterotrophic. Izilwanyana kufuneka zibandakanye ukutya okuphilayo njengezinye izilwanyana okanye izityalo ngokwazo.
  • Iiseli zezityalo zivumela ukuguqula amandla ekhemikhali abe ngamandla abe yilanga okanye amandla okukhanya enkosi kwinkqubo yephotosynthesis.
  • Kwiiseli zezilwanyana, amandla anikezelwa yi-mitochondria.
  • I-cytoplasm yeseli yesityalo ihlala i-vacuoles ezinkulu kwi-90% yendawo. Ngamanye amaxesha kukho i-vacuole enye enkulu. I-vacuoles isebenza ukugcina iimveliso ezahlukeneyo ezivela ngexesha le-metabolism. Ukongeza, isusa iimveliso zenkunkuma ezahlukeneyo ezenzeka kwi-metabolism efanayo. Iiseli zezilwanyana zineevacuoles kodwa zincinci kakhulu kwaye azithathi ndawo ingako.
  • Kwiiseli zezilwanyana sifumana organelle ukuba ibizwa ngokuba yi-centrosome. Nguye ojongene nokwahlula iichromosomes ukudala iiseli zentombi, ngelixa kwiiseli zezityalo akukho organelle enjalo.
  • Iiseli zezityalo zinobume be-prismatic, ngelixa iiseli zezilwanyana zinemilo eyahlukeneyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga namalungu eseli kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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