Ihydrogen eluhlaza

decarbonization

I-hydrogen eluhlaza iye yaba yenye yeentsika ezisisiseko zeNgxowa-mali yokuBuyisa i-EU. Ezinye zeemali ziya kuba yeyona nto iphambili ekuvuseleleni imali eyakhe yaxhaswa kuhlahlo-lwabiwo mali lwe-EU, ngenaliti yoqoqosho iyonke ye-1.8 yezigidi zeerandi ezisetyenziselwe ukwakha iYurophu emva kwe-COVID-19. Utshintsho lwamandla yenye yeembombo zale meko, apho i-30% yohlahlo-lwabiwo mali yabelwe ukutshintsha kwemozulu. Kulapho i hydrogen green iqala ukufumana iwonga, ukutsala umdla ngakumbi nangakumbi kwaye uyibeke kwingxoxo-mpikiswano yoluntu njengenye yeentsika ezisisiseko zolawulo lwezoqoqosho. Kodwa yintoni kanye kanye ihydrogen eluhlaza?

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni i-hydrogen eluhlaza, ziziphi iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

Yintoni i-hydrogen eluhlaza

izifundo zehydrogen eluhlaza

IHydrogen yeyona nto inamachiza amaninzi emhlabeni, kodwa inengxaki: ayifumaneki ngokukhululekileyo kwindalo esingqongileyo (umzekelo, kumadama), kodwa ihlala idibanisa nezinye izinto (umzekelo, emanzini, H2O okanye methane, I-CH4). Ke ngokoUkuze isetyenziswe kwizicelo zamandla, kufuneka kuqala ikhutshwe, oko kukuthi, ihlukaniswe nezinye izinto.

Ukufeza oku kwahlulwa kunye nokufumana i-hydrogen yasimahla, kufuneka kwenziwe iinkqubo ezithile kunye namandla achithwayo kuzo. Oku kuchaza i-hydrogen njengomphathi wamandla, endaweni yamandla ephambili okanye ipetroli abantu abaninzi abayithathela ingqalelo. I-hydrogen eluhlaza ngumbane ophethe amandla, ayingowona mthombo wamandla. Ngamanye amagama, i-hydrogen yinto enokugcina amandla, anokukhutshwa ngendlela elawulwayo kwenye indawo. Ke, Unokuthelekiswa neebhetri ze-lithium ezigcina umbane, endaweni yezibaso ezifana negesi yendalo.

Amandla e-Hydrogen okulwa notshintsho lwemozulu alele kubuchule bawo bokubuyisela i-fossil kwizicelo apho i-decarbonization inzima ngakumbi, enjengokuhamba elwandle kunye nokuthuthwa komoya okanye iinkqubo ezithile zorhwebo. Yintoni egqithisile, inamandla amakhulu njengenkqubo yokugcina amandla (ixesha elide), elinokuqokelela amandla ixesha elide, kwaye ulisebenzise kwimfuno.

Imvelaphi kunye neentlobo zehydrogen

ihydrogen eluhlaza

Njengegesi engenambala, inyani kukuba xa sithetha ngehydrogen, sihlala sisebenzisa amagama amibalabala ukuyichaza. Uninzi lwenu luya kube luvile ngehydrogen eluhlaza, ngwevu, luhlaza, njl. Umbala owabelwe i-hydrogen ayikho enye into ngaphandle kwelebheli esetyenziselwa ukuyihlela ngokwemvelaphi yayo kunye nenani lekhabhon diokside ekhutshwe ngexesha lokuveliswa kwayo. Ngamanye amagama, indlela elula yokuqonda ukuba "icoceke" njani:

  • Ihayidrojini emdaka: Ifunyanwa ngokulahla amalahle, kwaye ngexesha lenkqubo ikhutshwa ikhabhon diokside. Ngamanye amaxesha ibizwa ngokuba yi-hydrogen emnyama.
  • I-hydrogen engwevu: ifunyenwe kutshintsho lwegesi yendalo. Okwangoku yeyona mveliso ininzi kwaye inexabiso eliphantsi, nangona iindleko kulindeleke ukuba zonyuke ngenxa yexabiso lamalungelo okukhupha i-carbon dioxide. Ukuveliswa kwethoni enye ye-H1 ash kuya kukhupha i-2 ukuya kwi-9 leetoni ze-CO12.
  • I-hydrogen eblue: Ikwaveliswa ngokuguqula igesi yendalo, umahluko kukuba inxenye okanye konke ukuphuma kwe CO2 kuthintelwe ngenkqubo yokubanjwa kwekhabhoni. Emva kwexesha, le carbon dioxide inokusetyenziselwa ukwenza izinto zokubasa, umzekelo.
  • Ihydrogen eluhlaza: Ifunyanwa ngokufaka umbane emanzini usebenzisa umbane ovela kwimithombo yamandla ehlaziyekayo. Yeyona ibiza kakhulu, kodwa njengoko iindleko zamandla ahlaziyekayo kunye nee-electrolyzers zehla, ixabiso layo kulindeleke ukuba lehle kancinci kancinci. Olunye uhlobo lwehydrogen eluhlaza luveliswa kwi-biogas kusetyenziswa imfuyo, ezolimo kunye / okanye inkunkuma kamasipala.

Ngapha koko, inkqubo yokuvelisa i-hydrogen eluhlaza ayinzima konke konke: i-electrolysis isebenzisa nje amandla ombane ukwahlula amanzi (H2O) kwioksijini (O2) kunye nehydrogen (H2). Owona mceli mngeni kukhuphiswano, nto leyo efuna umbane wexabiso eliphantsi ohlaziyekayo (ongaphezulu okanye ongaphantsi), kunye nobuchwephesha beselfowuni obusebenzayo nobunokutsha.

Ukusetyenziswa kwehydrogen eluhlaza

umoya ovuselelekayo

Kwithiyori, enye yezona ndlela zisebenzayo zokuchaphazela uqoqosho kukuzama ukufaka umbane kuyo yonke inkqubo yamandla. Nangona kunjalo, okwangoku, ibhetri kunye netekhnoloji yombane ayinakwenzeka, kuxhomekeke kwisicelo. Uninzi lwabo, I-hydrogen eluhlaza inokutshintsha indawo yezibaso, nangona ingengabo bonke abakhulileyo okanye elula:

Endaweni yoko, sebenzisa ihydrogen emdaka nengwevu. Inyathelo lokuqala kufuneka libe kukutshintsha yonke i-hydrogen ye-fossil esetyenziswa ngoku kwimizi-mveliso, sebenzisa ubuchwepheshe obuphucukileyo kunye nokunciphisa iindleko. Umceli mngeni awukho mncinci: imfuno yehlabathi ye-hydrogen evela kwimveliso yombane iya kudla i-3.600 TWh, ngaphezulu kokuveliswa kombane ngonyaka kwe-EU. Olu lolona phawu lusetyenziswayo lwehydrogen eluhlaza:

  • Icandelo elinzima. Abasebenzisi abakhulu bentsimbi, isamente, iinkampani zamachiza kunye nezinye izinto zokubasa azifikeleleki lula okanye zinokwenzeka ngokuthe ngqo.
  • Ivenkile yamandla. Ngokuqinisekileyo le yenye yezona zicelo zithembisayo zehydrogen: njengenkqubo yokugcina amandla ombane. Ngenxa yokwanda kokuthandwa kwamandla avuselelekayo, siyakufumanisa ukuba iindleko zombane zibiza ixabiso eliphantsi, kwaye kuya kubakho nentsalela kuba akukho ndawo yakuwusebenzisa. Kulapho i-hydrogen iza kudlala khona, enokuveliswa ngexabiso eliphantsi kwaye emva koko isetyenziselwe ukufuna nasiphi na isicelo, nokuba kukwenziwa kwamandla okanye nasiphi na isicelo.
  • Zothutho Ezothutho ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo sesinye sezona zicelo zithembisayo zehydrogen. Kuthutho oluncinci lwanamhlanje, iibhetri ziluphumelela ukhuphiswano, kodwa abanye abavelisi (ngakumbi iJapan) bayaqhubeka nokuphuhlisa iimodeli zabo zeeseli zepetroli kwaye iziphumo ziya zisanda ngokuthembisa.
  • Ukufudumeza. Ukufudumeza kwasekhaya nakwimizi-mveliso licandelo elingenakusoloko lifakelwa umbane (iimpompo zobushushu azisoloko zikhethwa), kwaye i-hydrogen inokuba sisisombululo esincinci. Ukongeza, izixhobo ezikhoyo (ezinje ngerhasi yenethiwekhi) zinokusetyenziselwa ukwandisa iimfuno. Ngapha koko, ukuxuba ukuya kuthi ga kwiipesenti ezingama-20 ngevolid hydrogen kuthungelwano lwegesi yendalo esele ikho kufuna ukulungiswa okuncinci kwinethiwekhi yomsebenzisi wokugqibela okanye izixhobo zombane.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga ne-hydrogen eluhlaza kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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