Isizukulwana sesibini kunye nesesithathu se-biofuels

i-biofuels zesizukulwana sesibini nesesithathu

Kwimeko yemigaqo-nkqubo ekhulayo yokunciphisa ipesenti yokukhutshwa kwe-CO2 kunye nokufezekisa ukungathathi hlangothi kwemozulu, izithuthi, ezimele i-29% ye-CO2 yehlabathi elinganayo ngo-2019, idinga zonke izisombululo ezinokwenzeka ukukhuthaza i-decarbonization yayo. Esinye sezi zisombululo siquka ukwandisa imveliso kunye nokusetyenziswa kwe-biofuels. Abantu abaninzi abazi ukuba yintoni na i-biofuels zesizukulwana sesibini nesesithathu.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba zeziphi i-biofuels zesizukulwana sesibini kunye nesesithathu, iimpawu zabo, ukuba zenziwa njani kunye nokunye okuninzi.

Isizukulwana sokuqala

i-biofuels zesizukulwana sesibini nesesithathu

Isizukulwana sokuqala se-biofuels luhlobo lwesibaso esiveliswa kwizinto ezikrwada zemvelaphi yebhayoloji, njengezityalo zezolimo okanye iimveliso zamahlathi. Ezi biofuels zithathwa ngokuba "zisizukulwana sokuqala" kuba zaba zezokuqala ukuphuhliswa kwaye zisetyenziswe ngomlinganiselo omkhulu njengenye indlela kumafutha efosili yemveli, anjengeoyile nepetroli.

Enye yezona zinto zixhaphakileyo kwisizukulwana sokuqala se-biofuels yi-ethanol, efunyanwa ikakhulu kwizityalo zombona, iswekile, iibhiti kunye nezinye iimveliso ezityebileyo ngeswekile okanye istatshi. Inkqubo yokuvelisa i-ethanol ibandakanya ukubiliswa kwezi zinto zendalo ukuguqula iswekile ibe butywala. I-ethanol ephumayo ixutywa nepetroli ngokwemilinganiselo eyahlukeneyo kwaye isetyenziswa njengamafutha ezithuthi kwiindawo ezininzi kwihlabathi jikelele.

Esinye isizukulwana sokuqala se-biofuel yi-biodiesel, eveliswa kwioli yemifuno, efana ne-soya, i-rapeseed okanye ioli yesundu, kunye namafutha ezilwanyana. Inkqubo yokuveliswa kwe-biodiesel ibandakanya ukuguqulwa kwe-oyile kunye namafutha, okuguqulela ekubeni yi-fuel fuel enokusetyenziswa kwiinjini ze-diesel.

Ekuqaleni, ezi biofuels zazijongwa njengento enomtsalane kuba zinika umthombo wamandla ohlaziyekayo onokunceda ukunciphisa ukuxhomekeka kumafutha efosili kunye nokunciphisa iziphumo zokutshintsha kwemozulu ngokunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwerhasi yegreenhouse. Nangona kunjalo, ekuhambeni kwexesha, iinkxalabo ziye zavela malunga nokuzinza kwayo kunye nemiphumo yayo emibi, njengokhuphiswano lwamafama kunye nemithombo yendalo, ukugawulwa kwamahlathi kunye nefuthe kukhuseleko lokutya.

Ziziphi i-biofuels zesizukulwana sesibini nesesithathu?

Isizukulwana sokuqala

Isizukulwana sesibini

Isizukulwana sesibini se-biofuel yinguquko yesizukulwana sokuqala se-biofuels eveliswa kwizinto ezingafunelwanga ukuba zisetyenziswe ngabantu kwaye ezibonisa indlela ezinzileyo nesebenzayo ngokwezibonelelo. Ngokungafaniyo neyokuqala, isizukulwana sesibini se-biofuels Zifumaneka kwizinto ze-lignocellulosic, ezifana nezolimo, inkunkuma yamahlathi okanye izityalo ezingenakudliwa.

Enye yezona zinto ziphawulekayo yi-cellulosic bioethanol. Oku kuveliswa ngokubola kwe-cellulose, i-hemicellulose kunye ne-lignin equlethwe kwizinto zezityalo ezifana iintsalela zezityalo, iindiza, ingxowa yeswekile kunye neenkuni. Inkqubo yokuvelisa intsonkothe ​​ngakumbi kunaleyo ye-ethanol yesizukulwana sokuqala, kuba ibandakanya ukusetyenziswa kwe-enzymes kunye ne-microorganisms ukubola ezi zakhiwo ze-cellulosic zibe yiswekile evundileyo, ezithi ziguqulwe zibe yi-ethanol. Le ndlela yokwenza kube lula ukuthatha ithuba lezinto ebezithathwa njengenkunkuma ngaphambili kwaye inciphisa ukhuphiswano ngemveliso yokutya.

Esinye isizukulwana sesibini se-biofuel yi-biodiesel evela kwi-oyile engenakudliwa, njengeoli ye-algae, i-jatropha kunye nezinye izityalo ezingezona ukutya. La mafutha asetyenziselwa ukuvelisa i-biodiesel ngendlela efanayo kwisizukulwana sokuqala se-biodiesel, kodwa ngaphandle kokusebenzisa i-oyile yemifuno yokutya, enciphisa impembelelo ekukhuseleni kokutya.

Zijongwa njengenye indlela ezinzileyo kwisizukulwana sokuqala, kuba zithatha ithuba lemithombo ye-biomass engakhuphisaniyo nemveliso yokutya kwaye enokuba negalelo ekunciphiseni ukukhutshwa kwegesi eluhlaza. Ukongeza, ezi biofuels zinamandla oku ukusebenzisa imihlaba engabalulekanga kunye nenkunkuma yezolimo, ngokwenjenjalo kuncitshiswa uxinzelelo kubutyebi bendalo kunye nokutshatyalaliswa kwamahlathi.

Isizukulwana sesithathu

Isizukulwana sesithathu se-biofuels ludidi oluhambele phambili nolukhethekileyo lwe-biofuels oluveliswa kwi-microorganisms okanye i-algae, kwaye lubonisa indlela ezinzileyo nesebenzayo yokuveliswa kwamandla avuselelekayo xa kuthelekiswa nezizukulwana zangaphambili. Enye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo kwisizukulwana sesithathu semithombo ye-biofuel yi-microalgae biodiesel.. Kule nkqubo, iintlobo ezithile ze-microalgae zikhulile kumachibi okanye kwi-reactors, kwaye ezi microalgae ziqokelela i-lipids eneoli.

Amafutha ke akhutshwe kwaye aguqulelwe kwi-biodiesel usebenzisa iinkqubo zekhemikhali ezifana nezo zisetyenziselwa i-biodiesel yokuqala neyesibini. Ukulima i-microalgae inika iingenelo ezininzi, njengoko ezi zityalo zincinci zasemanzini zinokukhula kwiimeko ezahlukeneyo, kubandakanya amanzi anetyuwa kunye namanzi amdaka, kwaye Azikhuphisani nemveliso yokutya yaye azihlali kwiindawo ezinkulu zomhlaba.

Obunye ubuchwephesha obuvelayo kwisizukulwana sesithathu se-biofuels kukuveliswa kwee-hydrocarbons eziphambili ezivela kwi-microorganisms eguqulwe ngofuzo, njengebhaktheriya kunye negwele. Ezi microorganisms zenzelwe ukuvelisa iikhompawundi ezifana neehydrocarbons ezifumaneka kumafutha efosili, njengeoli ekrwada. Njengoko zikhula, ziqokelela ezi khompawundi ezinokuthi emva koko zitsalwe kwaye zicocwe zibe yi-biofuels, njengepetroli yokwenziwa okanye idizili.

Obu bugcisa buphantsi kophuhliso kwaye bunamandla okunikezela ngeyona ndlela ifanelekileyo nenokwehla kumafutha efosili. Isizukulwana sesithathu se-biofuels siyathembisa kuba azisekelwanga kuphela kwimithombo engeyiyo ukutya kwaye azikhuphisani nemveliso yokutya, kodwa ziyakwazi sebenzisa umhlaba ongasetyenziswanga okanye izibonelelo ebezingayi kusetyenziswa. Ukongeza, banokuba nefuthe eliphantsi lokusingqongileyo kwaye banciphise kakhulu ukukhutshwa kwegesi yegreenhouse.

Injongo ye-biofuels yesizukulwana sesibini nesesithathu

biodiesel

Ukufaneleka kwesizukulwana sesibini nesesithathu se-biofuels kwicandelo lezothutho kuphawuleka kumxholo womnqweno wethu wokuphumeza. isabelo esincinci se-28% yamandla ahlaziyekayo kwezothutho ngo-2030. Kodwa kutheni le nto zinokugqalwa njengezibaso ezinokuhlaziyeka?

Xa i-biofuels itshiswa kwiinjini zokutsha zangaphakathi, i-carbon dioxide iphuma emoyeni. Oku kutsalwa kwakhona sisityalo, esisiguqulela kwi-biomass, kunye ne-zero net ye-CO2 balance kwinkqubo. Oku kuthetha ukuba nangona izinto ezikhutshwayo ziqhubeleka, akukho kukhutshwa kwezinto ezintsha ezongezwayo kwiatmosfera. Ukuba ezi ndlela zidibene ne-carbon dioxide yokubamba kunye neteknoloji yokugcina, ukukhutshwa okungalunganga kunokwenzeka.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nesizukulwana sesibini kunye nesesithathu se-biofuels kunye neempawu zabo.


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