IHydrolysis

I-ATPase

Kwintsimi ye-chemistry sineempendulo zeekhemikhali ezenzeka phakathi kweemolekyuli neeathom. Namhlanje siza kuthetha nge hydrolysis. I-Hydrolysis luhlobo lwempendulo yamachiza enokuthi yenzeke phakathi kweemolekyuli ezingaphiliyo kunye nezinto eziphilayo. Olona phawu luphambili lwe-hydrolysis kukuba kubandakanya ukuthatha inxaxheba kwamanzi ukuze iibhondi zinqanyulwe.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela ngazo zonke iimpawu kunye nokubaluleka kwe-hydrolysis kwicandelo lekhemistri.

Yintoni hydrolysis

Ii-enzymes

Sithetha ngohlobo lwempendulo yamachiza enokuthi yenzeke phakathi kweemolekyuli eziphilayo nezingaphiliyo. Imeko ebalulekileyo yeyokuba amanzi kufuneka abandakanyeke ukuze akwazi ziqhawule iibhondi zezi molekyuli. Igama elithi hydrolysis livela kwi-Greek hydro, oko kuthetha ukuba amanzi kunye ne-lysis, okuthetha ukuphuka. Ukuguqulelwa kwifom, i-hydrolysis inokwaziwa njengokonakala kwamanzi. Kule meko, sithetha ngokwaphula iibhondi zezinye izinto ezisebenzayo ngokuthatha inxaxheba kwamanzi.

Imolekyuli yamanzi yenziwa ziiathom ezimbini zehydrogen kunye neeathom zeoksijini enye. Ngombulelo kolu dityaniso lweeathom, ulingano lwenziwa phakathi kweeon zetyiwa yeeasidi ezibuthathaka kunye neziseko. Iasidi kunye neziseko ziikhonsepthi ezibonakala kwizifundo ngokubanzi zekhemistri kunye nohlalutyo chemistry. I-Hydrolysis inokuthiwa yenye yezona zinto zilula zokuphendula ngaphandle phaya. Ukulingana ngokubanzi kwe-hydrolysis kulandelayo:

AB + H2O = AH + B-OH

Kukho imizekelo emininzi ye-hydrolysis apho amanzi okanye ngokwawo awakwazi ukuphula ibhondi ethile. Siyakhumbula ukuba iqhina elidibeneyo lihlala apho Iimolekyuli ezininzi ezineempawu ezingezozentsimbi ziyadibana ukwenza enye imolekyuli entsha. Ubophelelo obudibanisayo baziwa njengebhondi edibeneyo. Xa amanzi ewodwa engenako ukwaphula le bhondi, inkqubo iyakhawuleziswa okanye ichukunyiswe yi-acidification okanye i-alkalization yendlela. Oko kukuthi, kubukho be-ion, i-hydrolysis inokukhuthazwa. Kwaye kukho ii-enzymes ezinokubangela ukuba ikhemikhali iphendule kwi-hydrolysis.

Iimpawu eziphambili

hydrolysis of monosaccharides

Makhe sibone ukuba zeziphi iimpawu kwaye yeyiphi i-hydrolysis. Olu hlobo lokuphendula luhlala kwindawo ekhethekileyo xa kuziwa kwi-biomolecule. Kwaye kukuba iibhondi ezibambe ii-monomers zeemolekyuli kunye zinokuchaphazeleka kwi-hydrolyzing phantsi kweemeko ezithile. Oko kukuthi, iibhondi ezidibeneyo eziqhotyoshelwe kuzo iimolekyuli zinokwaphulwa ebusweni bamanzi. Umzekelo woku siswekile. Iswears ziyakwazi ukwenza i-hydrolyzing ukophula iipolysaccharides kwii-monosaccharides Oku kwenzeka ngenxa yesenzo se-enzymes ezaziwa ngokuba zii-glucosidases.

Kufuneka kukhunjulwe ukuba ayisiyiyo kuphela imolekyuli yesiqwenga esaphula ibhondi. Amanzi ngokwawo aqhekeka kwaye ekugqibeleni ahlukanise ion. Ukuqhekeka kwamanzi kwi-H + kunye ne-OH-, apho i-H + iphela ngo-A, kunye ne-OH- kunye no-AB.

Ke ngoko, sinokuthi i-hydrolysis yindlela yokwenza imichiza ngokuchasene nokuxinana. Ukusuka kunyanzelo, iimveliso ezimbini zidibanisa ngokukhupha imolekyuli encinci. Le molekyuli encinci ngamanzi. Ngokuchasene noko, kwi-hydrolysis imolekyuli iyasetyenziswa, ngelixa kulungiswa le molekyuli ye-electrolysis iyasetyenziswa, ikhutshwe okanye iveliswe.

Ukwenza kube lula ukuyiqonda, siza kuchaza umzekelo weswekile kwakhona. Masicinge ukuba i-AB yi-sucrose dimer. Kule meko u-A umele iswekile kwaye u-B umele i-fructose. Le bond in, yaziwa ngegama le-glycosidic, inokuthi yenziwe i-hydrolyzed ukunika i-monosaccharides ezimbini ezahlukeneyo kunye nesisombululo. Kwenzeka into efanayo nee-oligosaccharides kunye ne-polysaccharides ukuba ii-enzymes zezizo ezenza impendulo.

Siyazi ukuba le mpendulo yamachiza inendlela enye. Oku kuthetha ukuba luhlobo lwe-hydrolysis engenakuguqulwa. Kwelinye icala, kukho iimpendulo ze-hydrolysis eziguqulwayo nje ukuba kufikelelwe kubungakanani.

Imizekelo yeempendulo ze-hydrolysis

hydrolysis

Makhe sibone ukuba yeyiphi eyona mizekelo iphambili ye-hydrolysis eyenzeka ngokwendalo. Okokuqala, bona impendulo ye-hydrolysis ye-ATP. Siyazi ukuba le molekyuli inexabiso le-pH elizinzileyo phakathi ko-6.8 no-7.4. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba amaxabiso e-pH ayonyuka ukuze abe yi-alkaline engaphezulu, anokuyicoca ngokukhawuleza. Kwizinto eziphilayo, i-hydrolysis icaciswe zii-enzymes ezaziwa ngegama le-ATPases. Luhlobo lwempendulo yeekhemikhali exergonic. Oku kuthetha ukuba i-entropy ye-ADP inkulu kuneye-ATP, ke umahluko wamandla asimahla wenzeka nge-hydrolysis ye-ATP. Olu hlobo lwe-hydrolysis luneempendulo ezininzi ze-endergonic.

Ukuphendula ngokudibeneyo lolunye uhlobo lokuphendula apho kwenzeka khona i-hydrolysis. Kwezinye iimeko isetyenziselwa ukuguqula ikhompawundi A ibe yinkompo B. Owona mzekelo waziwa kakhulu we-hydrolysis ngokwendalo uvela emanzini. Ingathi enye yeemolekyuli zamanzi inokuqhekeka ibe zi-ion kunye ne-hydrogen proton bond kunye ne-oksijeni ye-oksijini yenye yeemolekyuli zamanzi. Oku kuphakamisa ion hydronium. Ingabizwa ngaphezulu kwe-hydrolysis njenge-autoionization okanye i-autoprotolysis yamanzi.

Okokugqibela, elinye lamacandelo apho ezi mpendulo zenziwa ngendlela eqhelekileyo kwiiproteni. Siyazi ukuba iiproteni ziimolekyuli ezizinzileyo kwaye ukufezekisa i-hydrolysis yazo epheleleyo, iimeko ezigwenxa ziyafuneka. Siyakhumbula ukuba iiproteni zenziwe ngee-amino acid. Nangona kunjalo, izinto eziphilayo zinikwa i-arsenal ye-enzyme evumela i-hydrolysis yeeprotheni kwi-amino acid kwi-duodenum.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga ne-hydrolysis kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
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