Ubunzima be-fusion yenyukliya

Amandla kunye nobushushu benyukliya fusion

La amandla enyukliya Inokubaluleka okukhulu kwinkqubo yamandla ehlabathi. Iyakwazi ukuvelisa isixa esikhulu samandla ngexabiso lokushiya ezinye inkunkuma yenyukliya ukunyangwa. Ukuhlanganiswa kwenyukliya Ngomnye wemiceli mngeni emikhulu ekufuneka yenziwe ngabantu. Eli lithuba elikhulu elinokuphelisa iingxaki zamandla kunye nokusilela kokubonelela. Ehlabathini lonke kukho izazinzulu ezininzi ezikhokelela kuphando olukhulu kuyo.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni i-fusion yenyukliya kwaye ziziphi izibonelelo kunye namathuba anokuzisa kuluntu ukuba ikwazile ukuba nentengiso. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ngakumbi ngayo? Kufuneka uqhubeke ufunda.

Yiyiphi i-fusion yenyukliya

Ukuhlanganiswa kweNyukliya

Kwinqaku elidlulileyo sikubonile oko fission yenyukliya Kwakumalunga nokwaphula iiathom ezinzima njengeplutonium kunye ne-uranium ukufumana amandla. Kule meko, ukudityaniswa kwenyukliya kuhambisa inkqubo echasene ngokupheleleyo. Yindlela abasabela ngayo Uyakwazi ukudibanisa iibhola ezimbini ezikhaphukhaphu ukuze wenze enye enzima.

Ngokudibanisa iiathom ezimbini ezikhaphukhaphu ukwenza enye inzima, kukhutshwa amandla, kuba inusus enzima ingaphantsi kwesibalo sobunzima bezi nuksi zodwa ngokwahlukeneyo. Ukuthatha ithuba loku, amandla anokukhutshelwa kuyo nantoni na. Ukuthathela ingqalelo ukuba amandla ale nkqubo ajolise kakhulu, kwigrama nje enye yomcimbi kukho izigidi zeeathom ezikhoyo, ke xa zinamafutha amancinci zinokuvelisa amandla amakhulu xa sithelekisa namafutha akhoyo ngoku.

Kuxhomekeke kwi-nuclei ethatha inxaxheba kule nkqubo yokuhlangana kwe-nyukliya, ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi kwesixa samandla siyakwenziwa. Eyona mpendulo ilula ukufezekisa umanyano phakathi kwe-deuterium kunye ne-tritium ukufumana i-helium. Kule ndlela, i-17,6 MeV iya kukhutshwa. Ngumthombo ongapheliyo wamandla kuba sinokufumana i-deuterium emanzini olwandle kunye ne-tritium inokufumaneka ngenxa yenyutroni enikwayo kwimpendulo.

Yenziwa njani ukudityaniswa kwenyukliya?

Ukuphendula kwenyukliya

Nangona le mveliso yamandla ehlabathi isombulula iingxaki zamandla kunye nongcoliseko, ukwenza njalo akukho lula. Uyazi ngokuqinisekileyo ukuba iyasebenza kwaye uyazi ukuba ungayenza njani. Nangona kunjalo, iimeko eziyimfuneko ukuze sikwazi ukulawula ngokuchanekileyo zonke iimfuno zenkqubo azikaziwa ngokupheleleyo. Kuya kufuneka ucinge ukuba le fusion yenyukliya yinkqubo eyenzeka kweyona nkwenkwezi yethu inkulu, iLanga. Kuya kufuneka ufumane amaqondo obushushu aphezulu ukuze uyenze.

Amasuntswana ngohlobo lwamafu anokusetyenziswa ngaphakathi kwezixhobo zenyukliya fusion, eziphantsi kwamakhulu amabini ezigidi zeedigri zobushushu. Khawufane ucinge umzuzwana nje kula maqondo obushushu; kungathetha ukoyiswa ngokupheleleyo kwayo nayiphi na into. La maqondo obushushu ayimfuneko ukuba sifuna ukuba inkqubo yenzeke. Ukujongana nje nala maqondo obushushu aphezulu sele kungumceli mngeni kwizazinzulu, kuba akukho nto inokumelana nazo ngaphandle kokuzibhubhisa.

Ukuphelisa le meko yamaqondo obushushu, kusetyenziswe iplasma. Impembelelo yokuvalelwa kwayo ngemagnethi ishushu ngokuphindwe kalishumi kunomxholo weLanga. Ubushushu obugqithisileyo ekufuneka eziathom zenziwe phantsi kwazo kungenxa yokuba kuphela kwendlela abanokunikezela ngazo. amandla e-kinetic ziyimfuneko kubo ukuba boyise ukuphindiswa kwendalo kunye nokudibana.

Ezi zinto zimbini Banetyala elifanayo lombane kunye nelintle, ke ngoko, bayagxothana. Ngamaqondo obushushu aphezulu kangaka, siya kuba nakho ukuvelisa amandla e-kinetic anamandla kangangokuba angadlulisela amandla okubopha. Ukusebenza nala maqondo obushushu nokulawula zonke izinto kunye neemeko ezingenelelayo kuwo kuyinto enzima kwaphela.

Iindlela zokuthintela inzululwazi

Ulwakhiwo lwezixhobo zenyukliya fusion

Ngezi zizathu zingasentla, amaqela enzululwazi aphanda ngokudibana kwenyukliya ayile izigaba ezibini ezahlukeneyo kunye neendlela: ukuvalelwa ngemagnethi kunye nokuvalelwa ngaphakathi.

Ukuvalelwa ngemagnethi yeyona ijolise ekwenzeni iplasma ngaphakathi kumazibuthe kuthintele i-nuclei yee-athomu ezingama-XNUMX ezigidi zeedigri Celsius ekuchukumiseni iindonga zelaptor. Ngale ndlela, eSiza kukhusela into esetyenziselwa ukudibana ukuba kwenzeke.

Into ebalulekileyo ekufuneka uyithathele ingqalelo kukuba, nangona onke amasuntswana ephantsi kwala maqondo obushushu, ayizizo zonke ezinokuthi zenze inkqubo yokubopha. Le yiparameter echazwe zizazinzulu njengokunciphisa umda wokudibanisa inyukliya kwimbono yamandla. Ngendlela eya kuthi, ukuze ibenakho ukusebenza kwezoqoqosho, inani lokudityaniswa kufuneka libe phezulu kangangokuba amandla avelisiweyo aphezulu kunalawo atyalwe kwimveliso yawo.

Ilanga, nangona linamaqondo obushushu ali-10 asezantsi kunalawo afunekayo ukuvelisa i-fusion yenyukliya, inikwe ubunzima bayo obukhulu, ivumela ukuba inyuse uxinzelelo apho i-nuclei iphantsi kwayo kwaye i-fusion yenzeka ngokuvalelwa ngumxhuzulane. Olo xinzelelo alunakuphinda lwenziwe kwiplanethi yethu, ke amaqondo obushushu kufuneka afikelelwe.

Kwelinye icala, ukuvalelwa ngaphakathi emzimbeni akusebenzisi umazibuthe ukuthintela iplasma ukuba ingachukumisi iindonga zombane, kunoko icebisa ukusetyenziswa kwepetroli ukufumana isuntswana le-deuterium kunye ne-tritium. Yiyo loo nto zonke izinto zixinana ngogonyamelo kwaye zikhokelela kumanyano lwe-nuclei ye-deuterium kunye ne-tritium.

Iya kuba nentengiso nini?

Ukuvalelwa komxhuzulane elangeni

Kule nkqubo yokufumana amandla ukuze isebenze ngokupheleleyo kurhwebo, kusekho ubuncinci iminyaka engamashumi amathathu yophando kunye novavanyo. Ukugcina inqanaba langoku lophando kunye notyalo mali kwesihloko, kunokwenzeka ukuba ubuchule ekugqitywe ngabo ukuba bube kurhwebo kukuvalelwa ngemagnethi.

Ukuba sifuna ukuba nemveliso yamandla kwi-fusion yenyukliya phakathi kwale nkulungwane, sidinga oososayensi ukuba babe nezinto eziyimfuneko kunye nezixhobo zokwenza lonke uphando olufanelekileyo. Ukuba oku akunjalo, siya kuba neelabhoratri ezizele zizazinzulu ezonwabisayo nezingenankqubela.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.