Biodiesel

Iibhayoloji

Ukuthintela ukusetyenziswa kwezibaso ezinyusa ubushushu behlabathi ngenxa yokukhutshwa kwegesi yendlu eluhlaza, uphando kunye nokuphuhliswa kwezinye iintlobo zemithombo yamandla eyenziwayo kuyenziwa, njengamandla ahlaziyekayo njengoko siwazi. Zininzi iindlela zamandla ahlaziyekayo: amandla elanga, umoya, ubushushu bamanzi, i-hydroelectric, i-biomass, njl. Amandla avela kwi-biofuels, njenge biodieselNgumthombo wamandla ohlaziyekayo ofumaneka kwizinto eziphilayo ezinokuthabathela indawo izinto zokubasa.

I-Biodiesel okanye i-fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) inokuveliswa kwiintlobo ngeentlobo zeoyile kunye namafutha ngenkqubo yokuqinisekisa, kubandakanya ukudlwengulwa kunye nojongilanga, iimbotyi zesoya kunye namandongomane kwelinye icala, kunye neoyile kunye namafutha asetyenziswa ngamanye. Inkqubo iqala ngokukhupha ioyile kwizityalo ezinamafutha. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ngakumbi nge-biodiesel? Apha sichaza yonke into kuwe.

Ukubaluleka kwee-biofuels

izibonelelo zebiodiesel

Ukusukela kuguquko kwimizi-mveliso, ubuntu babuxhasa kwaye bukhuthaza isayensi kunye netekhnoloji ngamandla avela kwizibaso. Zioyile, amalahle kunye negesi yendalo. Nangona ukusebenza kakuhle kwala mandla kuphezulu, la mafutha anqongophele kwaye aphela ngesantya esikhawulezayo. Ukongeza, ukusetyenziswa kwala mafutha kuya kuvelisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi egreenhouse emoyeni, ngaloo ndlela kugcina ubushushu ngakumbi emoyeni kwaye kubangele ukufudumala kwehlabathi kunye notshintsho lwemozulu.

Ngezi zizathu, abantu bazama ukufumana eminye imithombo yamandla ukunceda ukunciphisa iingxaki ezinxulumene nokusebenzisa amafutha ezinto ezingaphiliyo. Kule meko, ii-biofuels zithathwa njengomthombo wamandla ahlaziyekayo kuba ziveliswa kwizinto eziphilayo zezityalo. Ukutyala i-biomass, ngokungafaniyo neoyile, ayithathi izigidi zeminyaka ukuvelisaEndaweni yoko, iyakwenza oko kumlinganiso onokulawulwa ngabantu. Ii-biofuels zihlala ziveliswa kwizityalo ezinokuphinda ziphinde zenziwe. Phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo esinazo i-ethanol kunye ne-biodiesel.

Yintoni i-biodiesel

biodiesel

I-Biodiesel lolunye uhlobo lwe-biofuel, Yenziwe ngeoyile yemifuno esetyenzisiweyo kunye namafutha ezilwanyana. Ukusukela ukuba abantu abaninzi beqala ukuvelisa ezabo amafutha ekhaya ukunqanda ukuchitha kakhulu kwi-refueling, i-biodiesel iye yaduma kakhulu kwaye yasasazeka kwihlabathi liphela.

IBiodiesel inokusetyenziswa kwizithuthi ezininzi eziqhutywa yidizili ngaphandle koguqulelo oluninzi lwenjini. Nangona kunjalo, iinjini ezindala zedizili zinokufuna ukuba zenziwe iinkonzo ezithile ukuze kusebenze i-biodiesel. Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, ishishini elincinci le-biodiesel liye lavela e-United States kwaye ezinye izikhululo zeenkonzo sele zibonelele nge-biodiesel.

Yenziwa njani i-biodiesel

Inkqubo iqala ngokukhutshwa kweoyile kwizityalo zeoyile. Emva kokucokiswa, ioyile idluliselwe kwi-FAME okanye kwi-biodiesel ngokongeza i-methanol kunye ne-catalyst. Ngenxa yeempawu zayo ezifana kakhulu nedizili, i-biodiesel inokusetyenziswa kwiinjini zedizili ezisebenza kakuhle. Ukongeza, ukongeza kwizibonelelo zayo njengamafutha angamanzi, inokusetyenziselwa ukuvelisa ubushushu namandla. Inyaniso yokuba la mafutha aqukethe i-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ivumela ukuba igcinwe kwaye ihanjiswe ngaphandle komngcipheko ocacileyo. Kuba ivela kwioyile yemifuno kunye namafutha ezilwanyana, ngumthombo onokuphinda usebenze kwaye ubenokuboliswa ziintsholongwane.

IBiodiesel inokuxutywa nedizili yedizili kumanqanaba ohlukeneyo ngaphandle kweenguqulelo ezinkulu zenjini. Nangona kunjalo, akukhuthazwa ukusebenzisa umxube wexabiso elincinci ledizili ngaphandle kokutshintsha iimpawu zenjini, njengoko ukusebenza kwayo kungenakuqinisekiswa ngokusekelwe kuphando olwenziweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku.

Kwelinye icala, i-biodiesel ineepropathi zokuthambisa ezigqwesileyo njengoko iphethiloli eneoksijiniKe ngoko, kwinxalenye encinci, inokuphucula ukusebenza kwe-diesel, idlula kwanezinto zesalfure. Iyafana nento eyolulayo ixesha lokugcina. Inkqubo epheleleyo yokufumana i-biodiesel yile ngempumelelo zombini ngokwamanani obuninzi kunye namandla.

Iingxaki

Iimpawu zebiodiesel

Xa kuthelekiswa nokusebenza okuqhelekileyo kwe-diesel fuel, enye yeengxaki zokusebenzisa i-biodiesel kukunciphisa amandla. Umxholo wamandla we-biodiesel usezantsi. Ngokubanzi, ilitha yedizili ine-9.300 kcal yamandla, Ngelixa inani elifanayo le-biodiesel iqulethe kuphela i-8.600 kcal yamandla. Ngale ndlela, ngakumbi i-biodiesel iyafuneka ukufumana amandla afanayo nedizili.

Kwelinye icala, uphawu olubalulekileyo ekufuneka luqwalaselwe linani le-cetane, ekufuneka ibengaphezulu kwama-40 ukuze isebenze ngokufanelekileyo. Amafutha aphezulu e-cetane avumela i-injini ukuba iqale ngokukhawuleza kwaye ngokulula kwaye ifudumale kumaqondo obushushu asezantsi ngaphandle kokuphazamiseka. I-Biodiesel inenombolo ye-cetane efana nedizili, ke inokusetyenziswa kwinjini enye ngaphandle kokubangela ukuphazamiseka okukhulu.

Omnye umba oza kuqwalaselwa xa kuthethwa ngamafutha yimpembelelo yawo kwindalo esingqongileyo kunye nefuthe elinokubakho elinxulumene noko elinokudluliselwa eluntwini. Kule meko, Kunokuthiwa ukusetyenziswa kwe-biodiesel njengelinye okanye icandelo lomxube we-diesel-biodiesel Inokunciphisa ukungcola kweegesi ezikhutshelwe emoyeni, ezinje nge-nitrogen oxides (NOx) okanye icarbon dioxide (CO2). Le theyibhile ilandelayo ibonisa ukunciphisa ipesenti yedizili emsulwa.

Izibonelelo eziphambili

  • Xa kuthelekiswa nedizili yemvelaphi yefosili, I-Biodiesel inezibonelelo zendalo kuba inciphisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi.
  • Xa kuthelekiswa nedizili yepetroleum, i-net carbon monoxide incitshiswe ngama-78%.
  • Xa i-biodiesel yongezwa kwi-diesel yemveli, nakumxube ongaphantsi kwe-1%, ukuthambisa kwe-petroleum diesel kungaphuculwa kakhulu.
  • Yiphethiloli engenabungozi kwindalo esingqongileyo.
  • Yenziwe ngezinto ezinokuhlaziywa ezinokuhlaziywa.
  • Iqukethe phantse akukho sulphur. Gwema ukukhutshwa kwe-SOx (imvula ye-asidi okanye umphumo wegreenhouse).
  • Ukuphucula ukutsha kunye nokunciphisa ngokubonakalayo ukukhutshwa komsi nothuli (ukuya kuthi ga kwiipesenti ezingama-55, ukuphelisa umsi omnyama kunye nevumba elibi).
  • Ivelisa i-carbon dioxide encinci ngexesha lokutsha kune-carbon dioxide efunxwe kukukhula kwezityalo (umjikelo we-carbon dioxide ovaliweyo).

Umlahleki wolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nolu hlobo lwe-biofuel yeempawu zalo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.