Uninzi lwamazwe angcolisa umhlaba

ukumoshwa komoya

Ungcoliseko lwehlabathi yingxaki enkulu kakhulu ekufuneka ijongwe ngendlela esisiseko. Xa sithetha ngongcoliseko oluveliswa ngala mazwe omabini, ikakhulu sithetha ngongcoliseko lomoya. Nangona kukho iindidi ezahlukeneyo zongcoliseko, ungcoliseko lomoya lubangela iziphumo ezibi ehlabathini lonke, ezinjengokufudumala kwehlabathi nokutshintsha kwemozulu. I amazwe amaninzi angcolisa umhlaba Zezo zikhupha ezona gesi zingcolisayo emoyeni.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba ngawaphi amazwe angcolisa kakhulu kwaye zeziphi iziphumo zokungcoliseka komoya okusingqongileyo.

Ungcoliseko lomoya

imizi-mveliso engcolisa

Lo ngumba ongasaxhomekekanga kwimidla yokusingqongileyo kuphela. Ibe yinxalenye yobomi bemihla ngemihla yomntu wonke kule minyaka idlulileyo. Ungcoliseko lomoya yinkxalabo exhaphakileyo, yaye isicombululo sawo asikho ezandleni zoorhulumente okanye amazwe ngamazwe, kodwa wonk’ ubani unokunikela ukhozo lwesanti ukunqanda le miphumo. Obona bungqina bubonakalayo bongcoliseko lomoya ngamafu adumileyo ongcoliseko aqokelelana kumaziko asezidolophini kwaye ayingozi empilweni.

Kukho ezinye iindlela zongcoliseko lomoya ezingabonakali lula okanye zibonakale, kodwa zineziphumo ezibulalayo kwimpilo yezinto eziphilayo kunye ne-ecosystem. Ezi zinto zingcolisayo zibangela ukufudumala kunye nemiphumo eyintlekele kwisijikelezi-langa. Ekufumaneni kwethu oonobangela bongcoliseko lomoya, sibona ukuba kumawaka eminyaka yobomi kulo mhlaba, izinto ezikhutshwa yityhefu zivelisiwe.

Ukukhutshwa kwetyhefu kuyinxalenye yomjikelo wobomi, kodwa kuluhlu lwendalo. Ngamanye amazwi, ungcoliseko lwendalo aluchaphazeli kakhulu ukwakheka okanye ulwakhiwo lwe-ecosystem kuba luzenzekela. Iyingxenye yomjikelezo kwaye ayinyuki ngenxa yomsebenzi womntu. Phakathi kwezi zinto zikhutshwayo sifumana iigesi eziphuma ngexesha logqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo, kodwa imiphumo yazo ayizange ihlale ihleli. Nangona kunjalo, ngokufika kweNguquko yoShishino lwaBantu kunye nokwandisa ukwanda kwabemi, sijongene nemeko yehlabathi yongcoliseko lomoya.

Nakuphi na ukungcoliseka komoya kubhekiselele kubukho bezinto eziyityhefu eziveliswa yimisebenzi yabantu.

Iziphumo eziphambili

amazwe angcolisa ngakumbi

Njengoko sonke sisazi, iziphumo zongcoliseko lomoya zininzi kakhulu. Eyokuqala kunye neyona nto ikhawulezayo kukwanda kunye nokunyanzeliswa kwezifo zokuphefumla kunye nentliziyo phakathi kwabantu abahlala kumaziko asedolophini angcolileyo. Abanye, kufutshane nemithombo yemizi-mveliso, zikhupha ezi mveliso zinetyhefu emoyeni. Izifo zokuphefumla kunye nentliziyo ziye zanda kakhulu kuzo zonke ezi ndawo.

Kuqikelelwa ukuba malunga ne-3% yokulaliswa esibhedlele kubangelwa ukwanda kwezifo ezinxulumene nazo ngobuninzi bezingcolisi emoyeni. Awona mazwe angcoliseke kakhulu ehlabathini ngawona anoxinzelelo oluphezulu lwezi gesi kwaye ngoko ke awona mpembelelo inkulu kwezempilo.

Esinye isiphumo esibi songcoliseko lomoya yimpembelelo eyaziwayo yegreenhouse. Akufunekanga sidideke i-greenhouse effect ngokwayo kunye nokunyuka kwayo. Ingxaki asikokuba kukho i<em>greenhouse effect (ngaphandle kwayo, ubomi ngebungayi kuba njengoko sibazi), kukuba iyandisa imiphumo yezi gesi. Ezinye zeengxaki ezibangelwa kungcoliseko lomoya kukutshatyalaliswa kwendalo, imisebenzi emikhulu, ukunyuka kwamaqondo olwandle, ukunyamalala komhlaba, ukuzala kwezinambuzane, ukuphela kwezinto eziphilayo, Njl

Elona lizwe lingcoliseke kakhulu ehlabathini

amazwe amaninzi angcolisa umhlaba kunye neziphumo

Siyazi ukuba nyaka ngamnye ngaphezu kwe-36 yeebhiliyoni zeetoni zekharbon diokside kukhutshwa emoyeni. Yeyona gasi yegreenhouse ephambili enoxanduva lokutshintsha kwemozulu. Indlela yokukhutshwa kwezi mafutha ikakhulu kungenxa yokungcolisa imisebenzi yabantu. Nangona kunjalo, amazwe ambalwa kuphela awona angcolisa umhlaba akhupha uninzi lwezi gesi. Ngokungathandabuzekiyo awona mazwe angcolisekileyo kwihlabathi kwiminyaka yakutshanje yiTshayina, iUnited States, iIndiya, iRussia kunye neJapan.

Xa sithetha malunga nokukhutshwa kweCO2, siyibiza ngegesi yokuqala, kodwa ikwabizwa ngokuba yimetric. Xa sele sisazi ukukhutshwa kwe-CO2 elinganayo, singakwazi sele sisazi i-carbon footprint yelizwe ngalinye, nangona kunengqiqo. ungcoliseko oluvelisayo asiyonto yonke, okanye iCO2.

Ukuba asazi, kufuneka sazi ukuba amanqanaba akhoyo ongcoliseko ayenzekanga ubuncinane kwiminyaka eyi-3 yezigidi ngaphandle kwabantu emhlabeni. Kufuneka kwakhona kukhunjulwe ukuba ngelo xesha uMhlaba wawuhamba kwixesha lentaba-mlilo esebenzayo kakhulu.

Ngokwedatha ekhoyo, sifumanisa ukuba i-China yenza i-30% yokukhutshwa kwehlabathi jikelele, ngelixa i-United States yenza i-14%. Makhe sihlalutye ukuba leliphi inqanaba lawona mazwe angcolisekileyo kwihlabathi:

  • ITshayina, eneetoni ezingaphezu kwe-10.065 lezigidi zekharbon diokside ekhutshwayo
  • eMelika, 5.416 GtCO2
  • I-Indiya, ene-2.654 GtCO2 ekhutshwayo
  • IRashiya, ene-1.711 yezigidi zeetoni zokukhutshwa kweCO2
  • Japan, 1.162 GtCO2
  • EJamani, i-759 yezigidi zeetoni ze-CO2
  • I-Iran, i-720 yezigidi zeetoni ze-CO2
  • UMzantsi Korea, i-659 yezigidi zeetoni ze-CO2
  • ISaudi Arabia, 621 MtCO2
  • Indonesia, 615 MtCO2

Uninzi lwamazwe angcolileyo emhlabeni

amazwe amaninzi angcolisa umhlaba

Bhangladeshi

I-Bangladesh ingene kuluhlu lwawona mazwe angcolisekileyo kwihlabathi ngenxa yewonga layo eliphezulu longcoliseko. Umgangatho womoya wayo uphantsi kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa namanqanaba avumelekileyo. Umyinge wamasuntswana angcolisekileyo angama-97,10 uye wafikelelwa. Le mali ihlawulwe ngokuyinxenye abantu abangaphezu kwe-166 lezigidi abahlala e-Bangladesh banoxanduva lokukhutshwa kwezinto ezininzi ezikhutshwayo. Kukule minyaka yakutsha nje apho icandelo lemizi-mveliso yeli lizwe likhule kakhulu. Kukho iifektri ezininzi, ngakumbi iifektri zamalaphu, ezivelisa izixa ezikhulu zokukhutshwa kwegesi yegreenhouse.

Saudi Arabia

Owona mthombo woqoqosho lwaseSaudi Arabia kukutsalwa kweoli. Lo ngumthombo omkhulu wengeniso kwaye uye waba yenye yeengxaki zabo ezinzima. Kukukhutshwa kweoli okungavelisi nje inzuzo yezoqoqosho, kodwa ikhupha isixa esikhulu seegesi ezingcolisayo. ukukhutshwa kwamafutha efosili Ziyityhefu ngakumbi kwaye ziyingozi empilweni.

Indiya

I-Indiya nayo ingenile kwizintlu ze awona mazwe angcolisayo kwihlabathi anokukhula okuphezulu kwemizi-mveliso. Ayigcini nje ngokukhula kwishishini, kodwa ikwasebenzisa kakubi izichumisi zekhemikhali. Oku kusetyenziswa gwenxa kwezichumisi kuye kwangcolisa yonke imihlaba echumileyo kunye ne-aquifers egcina amanzi.

iTshayina

Kunokuthiwa iChina lelinye lamazwe aphambili kuqoqosho lwehlabathi. Nangona kunjalo, ikwaphakathi kwawona mazwe angcolisekileyo ehlabathini. Yaba nguye owazisa ulwazi olutsha kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo yokusebenza yamanyathelo okuthintela nokulawula ukungcoliseka kwendalo. Nangona kunjalo, izixeko ezikhulu zinomaleko wongcoliseko lomoya ongqingqwa kangangokuba akuliboni kakuhle ilanga. Ukukhutshwa kwekharbon diokside yaseTshayina kuyaqhubeka ukuphinda kabini ezo zamanye amazwe amakhulu njengeUnited States.

Yiputa

Xa ucinga ngelona lizwe lingcolisekileyo ehlabathini, mhlawumbi awucingi ngeli lizwe. Ke, njengakwamanye amazwe anjengeIndiya kunye neSaudi Arabia, ukwenziwa kwemizi-mveliso yamashishini amakhulu okuqalisa kwanda ngokukhawuleza. Olu phuhliso lwemizi-mveliso lukhokelela ekukhutshweni kwegesi yegreenhouse egqithisileyo. I-Egypt isenokuba ifikelele kumanqanaba osulelo, ewonke ngokuphindwe ngama-20 aphezulu kunoko kuvumelekileyo.

Brasil

IBrazil lelinye lamazwe asakhasayo anoqoqosho oluphumelelayo. Ngelishwa, olu phuhliso lwezoqoqosho lunxulunyaniswa nokuqonda okuphantsi kokukhathalelwa kokusingqongileyo. Eli nqanaba liphantsi lokugxila lithetha ukuba kukwakhona amanyathelo amancinci ngurhulumente. Konke oku kuyadibanisa ukutshatyalaliswa okukhulu kwamahlathi okuthwaxwe ngomnye wemiphunga ephambili yesi sijikelezi-langa, iAmazon. Ayinyusi nje kuphela isixa serhasi engcolisayo, kodwa ikwanciphisa ukufunxwa kwekharbon diokside zizityalo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga namazwe angcolisekileyo kwihlabathi kunye nawona angcolisekileyo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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