Yintoni amandla enyukliya? Konke okufuneka ukwazi

Amandla enyukliya

Ngokuqinisekileyo uyazi amandla enyukliya kwaye uyazi ukuba amandla ombane aveliswa kuyo. Nangona kunjalo, usenokungazi ukuba isebenza njani, ivela kweziphi izinto kwaye ziphi izibonelelo kunye nezinto ezingalunganga ezinazo. Kweli nqaku siza kugxila ekuchazeni yonke into enxulumene namandla enyukliya, ukusuka kwindlela esebenza ngayo kunye nezibonelelo zayo.

Ngaba uyafuna ukufunda okungakumbi malunga namandla enyukliya? Qhubeka ufunda ukuze wazi ngakumbi.

Yintoni amandla enyukliya?

Amandla enyukliya njengombane

Amandla enyukliya ekwaziwa njengamandla eatom kwaye yile nto ifunyanwa kwinyukliya. I-Nuclei kunye ne-atomic particles zi-protagonists zalo msebenzi. Ukuphendula kunokubakho ngokuzenzekelayo nangokubangelwa ngabantu. Ke, olu hlobo lwamandla lusebenza ngokufanelekileyo.

Ukusetyenziswa kwayo kubandakanya umngcipheko othile wokuba kufuneka wazi nzulu ukugcina ukhuseleko, kokubini kwabasebenzi nakwisixeko siphela. Amandla enyukliya yinto eveliswayo ngaphakathi kweathom. Ngaphakathi kwi-athomu nganye zimbini iintlobo zamasuntswana abizwa ngokuba zi-neutron kunye neeproton. Iifowuni zihlala zihamba ngeenxa zonke kubo, zibonelela ngombane wombane. Ukuvelisa umbane kumandla, kuya kufuneka ukhulule amandla avela kwi-nucleus yeathom. Oku kunokwenziwa ngokudibanisa inyukliya okanye Ukulwa kwenyukliya. Uqhekeko lwenyukliya lusetyenziswa kwizityalo zamandla enyukliya njengenkqubo yokuvelisa umbane.

La mandla awasebenzeli kuphela ukuveliswa kombane, kodwa kukwakho nezinye iinkalo ezinje amayeza, ishishini okanye izixhobo, amandla enyukliya ayinto ebalulekileyo ekrwada kubo.

Aveliswa njani amandla enyukliya

Iinqaba zokupholisa

Njengokuba besesiphawulile, amandla enyukliya akhiwa kwiinkqubo zefission kunye nefusion. Inani lamandla elinokufunyanwa kwezi nkqubo likhulu kakhulu kunayo nayiphi na enye. Yi ukungalingani kulo mbandela Ngexesha lokuphendula, eli livelisa amandla.

Kunokuthiwa kule ndawo, inani elincinci lobunzima linakho ukubonelela ngamandla amaninzi. Ukwenza umzekelo kwaye siqondane ngcono, isixa samandla esinokuveliswa ngekhilogram ye-uranium silingana naleyo inokuvelisa iitoni ezingama-200 zamalahle.

Njengokuba ubona, Umahluko phakathi kokuveliswa kwamandla unomdla. Oku kuyenza ibe lelinye lawona mandla atshiphu, kodwa kukho umngcipheko othile ekufuneka uthathelwe ingqalelo.

Izityalo zamandla enyukliya kunye noluntu

Ungcoliseko namandla acocekileyo

Abantu basebenzise amandla enyukliya ukufumana umbane ixesha elithile. Ngenxa yoku, izityalo zamandla enyukliya zakhiwe kwaye, eSpain, sinayo IBhunga lezoKhuseleko lweNyukliya (CSN) inoxanduva lokubeka iliso kuyo yonke imisebenzi nokuqinisekisa ukuba ukuxhatshazwa kolu hlobo lwamandla kukhuseleke kangangoko.

Kwaye kukuba enkosi kwii-reactor zenyukliya impendulo elawulwayo inokwenzeka. Ukuvelisa umbane, kusetyenziswa izityalo zamandla enyukliya izinto ezibizwa ngokuba zizinto ezinqabileyo kwiindlela zenyukliya ukubonelela ubushushu. Obu bushushu busetyenziswa ngumjikelo we-thermodynamic ukuqhuba enye into kunye namandla ombane aveliswayo. Lo ngumsebenzi oqhelekileyo wesityalo samandla enyukliya.

Eyona nto iqhelekileyo kukuba izityalo zisebenzisa izinto zeekhemikhali ezinje nge-uranium kunye neplutonium. Nangona ezi mpendulo kunye nemveliso yamandla ingazivelisi iigesi ezingcolisayo emoyeni, ivelisa inkunkuma enemitha yeathom engcolise kakhulu kwaye iyingozi. Unyango oluchanekileyo kukugcinwa kwayo kwiindawo ezizimeleyo nezilawulwayo.

Xa usebenzisa umthombo wamandla kwizinto ezingafunekiyo, kufuneka ihlale izinzile kangangoko kunokwenzeka ukuba ilawulwe kwaye zizinto ezi-3 kuphela ezihlangabezana nemeko. I-Uranium 233, i-Uranium 235 kunye nePlutonium.

Ngaphandle kwezixhobo zenyukliya, le nto ayinakusetyenziselwa ukuvelisa umbane. Ngaphakathi i-reactor yipetroli kwaye kulapho kwenzeka khona ulawulo oluxonxiweyo.

Ubungozi bezityalo zamandla enyukliya

Umngcipheko wamandla enyukliya

Njengoko sibonisile amatyeli aliqela, amandla enyukliya ngexabiso eliphantsi kodwa aneengozi ezithile. Banoxanduva lokungcolisa ngokungangqalanga okungcolileyo okuvela kulwakhiwo nokwenziwa kwepetroli ngokwayo kunye nolawulo olulandelayo lwenkunkuma eqhumayo. Ezi nkunkuma zihlala ziphoswa emilanjeni kwaye ngaphandle kolawulo kwizihlandlo ezininzi.

Ayisiyo nkunkuma kuphela engcolisa amanzi nomhlaba eyingozi kwakhona. Ukuba une-reaction engalawulekiyo yenyukliya, iintlekele ezinje nge i Chernobyl ne Fukushima iingozi kunye nezinye iingozi ezenzekileyo kwimbali.

Izinto eziluncedo zamandla enyukliya

Izibonelelo kunye nezibonelelo

Xa sicinga ngamandla enyukliya, sicinga ngawo njengamandla anamandla kwaye ayingozi ukuphatha. Ukuba uthetha ngayo, ayinakuphepheka ukucinga ngeebhombu zeathom zaseHiroshima naseNagasaki kunye neentlekele zaseChernobyl naseFukushima. Nangona kunjalo, ayizizo zonke izinto ezimbi kwizityalo zamandla enyukliya. Zininzi izibonelelo zokusebenzisa la mandla.

  • Ngokuchasene nenkolelo edumileyo, ngumbane ococekileyo kwaye awudingi mafutha. Ukuba inkunkuma eqhumayo ilawulwa kakuhle, ayikhuphi naluphi na uhlobo longcoliseko. Oku kunceda ekunciphiseni iigesi ezingcolisayo kwiatmosfera kunye nobushushu behlabathi.
  • Isiqinisekiso sayo sokubonelela ngombane sihlala sihleli, oko kukuthi, sisinika umbane iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku, iintsuku ezingama-365 ngonyaka.
  • Njengoko imveliso yayo ihlala ihleli, amaxabiso nawo akwanjalo. Ioyile ixhomekeke kwisigqibo seenkampani ezininzi kwaye amaxabiso asoloko etshintsha.
  • Amandla enyukliya anexabiso eliphantsi ukuba sithathela ingqalelo ubungakanani bamandla anakho ukuvelisa. Ukuvelisa amandla enyukliya, kuncinci izinto ezingafunekiyo ezifunekayo (i-uranium okanye iplutonium) kulondolozo lwezixhobo (i-uranium imele phantse ikota yenkcitho yokuvelisa amandla enyukliya) kodwa nakwizothutho, ekugcineni, kwiziseko zokukhupha, njl.
  • Akuxhomekekanga kwindalo okanye kwindalo esingqongileyo njengamandla ahlaziyekayo.

Njengoko ubona, amandla enyukliya agqityiwe kwaye, nangona kucingelwa ngakumbi malunga nemitha kunye nomhlaza, lukhetho olufanelekileyo lokuphepha ukufudumala kwehlabathi.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.