Indalo

imeko yendalo ayilingani nendalo

Kwamanye amanqaku ebesithethile ngawo lithosphere, indawo yokuhlala, isibhakabhaka, iatmosferanjl. nazo zonke izinto zayo. Ukuchaza kakuhle zonke iinkalo zomhlaba kunye nomsebenzi ngamnye, uluntu lwenzululwazi luseka imida ethile. Kwizihlandlo ezininzi sithetha ngendalo esingqongileyo, nangona ingekachazwa kakuhle kwaye imiselwe ngokwendlela enokubandakanya ngayo.

I-ecosphere ichazwa njenge Indalo iphela yomhlaba, ezenziwa zizo zonke izinto eziphilayo ezikhoyo kwindalo ephilayo kunye nobudlelwane obumiselweyo phakathi kwabo nokusingqongileyo. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ngakumbi ngeempawu kunye nokubaluleka kwendalo?

Ingcaciso ngobume bendalo buyintoni?

Ubume bendalo buqokelela iseti yezinto eziphilayo kunye nokunxibelelana kwabo nokusingqongileyo

Singatsho ukuba indawo yendalo ikhoyo Isidibanisi sendalo esingqongileyo kunye nokunxibelelana okunokwenzeka nokusingqongileyo. Ngamanye amagama, i-biosphere yayiquka yonke indawo yoMhlaba ehlala izidalwa eziphilayo, kodwa ayikhange iqwalasele unxibelelwano olukhoyo phakathi kwezi zinto ziphilayo kunye nokusingqongileyo. Oko kukuthi, ukutshintshiselana ngemfuza phakathi kwezilwanyana kunye nezityalo, iitrophic chain zezinto eziphilayo, umsebenzi wento nganye enayo kwimeko apho kuhlala ezinye iintlobo, ubudlelwane phakathi kwe-abiotic kunye ne-biotic part, njl.

Olu luvo lwe-ecosphere lubanzi jikelele lweMhlaba, kuba enkosi kuyo sinokuqonda kwindlela ngokubanzi esinokuthi siyibize Inkqubo yendalo yesijikelezi-langa eyenziwe yile ingentla, i-geosphere, i-biosphere, i-hydrosphere kunye ne-atmosfera. Ngamanye amagama, imeko yendalo ikufana nokufunda kwayo yonke inkqubo yendalo yonke kunye nokuhlangana kwabo.

Izixhobo

i-biosphere kunye ne-ecosphere iyahluka

Kuba ubukhulu be-ecosphere bukhulu kakhulu, bunokwahlulahlulwa bubobuncinci bokulungiselela ukufundwa kwayo. Kufuneka sicace gca ukuba nangona abantu bahlulahlulahlulahlulahlulahlula i-ikhosistim (ecosystem) ukuze ikwazi ukukuqonda ukusebenza kwayo, ukuyigcina nokuyisebenzisa, iyinyani leyo indalo iphelele Kwaye kukho unxibelelwano olungagungqiyo phakathi kwazo zonke izixokelelwano zendalo ezenza oko kubizwa ngokuba yi-ecosphere.

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, kwindalo yeplanethi yonke izinto eziphilayo ziyasebenzisana ngokuthe ngqo okanye ngokungathanga ngqo. Umzekelo, xa izityalo photosynthesize, zifunxa i-CO2 kwaye zikhuphe ioksijini ebalulekileyo kubomi bezinye izinto eziphilayo. Omnye umzekelo apho i-abiotic factor efana nokungenelela kwamanzi ngumjikelo we-hydrological. Kulo mjikelo, amanzi ahamba kwinkqubo ebalulekileyo kubomi kumgangatho weplanethi. Enkosi ngale ntshukumo yamanzi kunye negalelo eliqhubekayo kwindalo, izigidi zeentlobo zinokuphila kwiplanethi yethu.

Oku kunxibelelana kwazo zonke izinto eziphilayo, zombini kunye nezinye izinto ezinje nge-abiotic (ezinjengamanzi, umhlaba okanye umoya) zisenza sibone ukuba zonke iziqwenga zephazili ziyimfuneko ukuze zihlale emhlabeni. Ke ngoko, kubalulekile ukuba sizame ukunciphisa iimpembelelo ezithi ziveliswe ngabantu kwiplanethi, kuba nawuphi na umonakalo oveliswe yiyo uya kuba neziphumo kuwo onke amanye amacandelo enza i-ecosphere.

Izixhobo

indalo inamacandelo ahlukeneyo

Xa sibhekisa kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo sinokwahluka okukhulu kweentlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Kuqala sinezinto eziphilayo ezivelisayo. Ezi zibizwa ngokuba zii-autotrophs, oko kukuthi, ziyakwazi ukuvelisa ukutya kwazo ngamanzi, ikharbon diokside kunye neetyuwa zetyuwa. Ukwenza ukutya kwabo bafuna amandla emitha yelanga. Izityalo zizinto ezizenzekelayo.

Ezi zokugqibela zitya izinto eziphilayo, ezibizwa ngokuba ziiheterotrophs, ezitya izinto eziphilayo eziveliswa zezinye izinto eziphilayo. Kwii-heterotrophs sinokufumana iintlobo ezininzi zezinto zokutya:

  • Abathengi bokuqala. Zizo ezo zitya ingca kuphela, ezaziwa njengee-herbivores.
  • Abasebenzisi besekondari. Zizilwanyana ezitya inyama yezilwanyana ezitya utyani.
  • Abasebenzisi bemfundo ephakamileyo. Bondla kwezo zilwanyana zitya ezinye izilwanyana ezitya inyama.
  • Abaqhekezi. Zijika zibe zezezinto eziphilayo ze-heterotrophic ezondla kwizinto ezifileyo eziphilayo ezibangelwa kwiintsalela zezinye izinto eziphilayo.

Umahluko phakathi kwendalo kunye nendalo

I-NASA yenza i-ecosphere kulingo

Kwelinye icala, i-biosphere, apho kukho khona izinto eziphilayo, isuka emazantsi olwandle iye encotsheni yentaba ephezulu ekhoyo, equka nenxalenye yomoya, i-troposphere, i-hydrosphere kunye nenxalenye yomhlaba we-geosphere Oko kukuthi, i-biosphere, njengoko ivela, yindawo yomhlaba apho ubomi bufumaneka khona.

Nangona kunjalo, kwelinye icala, i-ecosphere ayisiyiyo kuphela indawo apho ubomi bufumaneka kwaye busasazeka khona, kodwa ifunda ngalo lonke ubudlelwane obukhoyo phakathi kwezi zinto ziphilayo. Ukutshintshiselana ngento kunye namandla phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo kunye nokusingqongileyo kunzima kakhulu. Ukuze kubekho imvisiswano kwindalo kunye nazo zonke iintlobo zezinto eziphilayo ezinokuhlala ngaxeshanye, kufuneka kubekhona izibonelelo zendalo zokugcina abantu, amarhamncwa alawula inani lomntu ngamnye kuhlobo ngalunye lwezinto eziphilayo, ithuba elingenelelayo, ulungelelwaniso phakathi kwezidudu kunye nemikhosi, ubudlelwane beempawu, njl. .

Inkqubo yendalo nganye inebhalansi yendalo ngokuxhomekeke kubemi, izibonelelo zendalo kunye neemeko zemozulu ezithi zenzeke. Le bhalansi yendalo kunzima kakhulu ukuyifunda nokuyiqonda, kuba zininzi izinto eziguquguqukayo ezisebenza kule bhalansi ibuthathaka. Iimeko zemozulu zezi zezo zichonga ubungakanani bamanzi afumanekayo kwindalo, ubungakanani bamanzi, wona, enza ukuba ukukhula kwezityalo, kuthi ke, kuxhase abantu bezityalo ezitya utyani, ngabo bakhonza njengoko ndondla izidlo ezitya inyama. kwaye bayishiya intsalela kubananisi kunye nabaqwengayo.

Lonke ikhonkco lokutya "libotshelelwe" kwiimeko ezikhoyo kwindawo nganye kunye nomzuzu ngamnye, ke ukuba kukho into engazilinganisi zonke izinto eziguquguqukayo, i-ecosystem inokubangela ukungazinzi. Umzekelo, loo nto yokungalingani kwezinye izinto eziguquguqukayo inokuba sisenzo somntu. Iimpembelelo eziqhubekayo zomntu kwindalo esingqongileyo kuzo zombini iimeko ze-abiotic kunye ne-biotic ziguqula ukulinganisela kwendalo, okwenza ukuba ukusinda kweentlobo ezininzi kube nzima ngakumbi kwaye kukhokelele ekuphelisweni kwezinye ezininzi.

Inkqubo ekhethekileyo eyenziwe yi-NASA ukuqonda imeko-bume

Ukuqonda ibhalansi yendalo ekhoyo kwindalo, i-NASA yenze uvavanyo. Yiglasi yeqanda evaliweyo, apho i-algae, ibacteria kunye ne shrimp zihlala ngandlela thile, ihlabathi eligqibeleleyo ngokwesayensi, ethi, ngononophelo oluhambelana nayo, iphile phakathi kweminyaka emine ukuya kwemihlanu, nangona bekukho iimeko zokuba ubomi buqhubeke iminyaka eli-18.

Le nkqubo ikhethekileyo yenzelwe ukuqonda ukulingana okulawula iisistim kwaye zenza imvisiswano ukuze zonke iintlobo eziphilayo zihlale kuyo kwaye zizibonelele ngezixhobo zendalo ngaphandle kokuzigqiba.

Ukongeza kolu luvo lokuqonda ulungelelwaniso lwendalo, le nkqubo yenzelwe ukufumana ezinye iindlela zokuhambisa inkqubo yendalo epheleleyo kwiiplanethi ezikude noMhlaba kwixesha elizayo, njengemars.

Amanzi olwandle, amanzi olwandle, ulwelwe, ibhaktiriya, i-shrimp, igravel yaziswa eqandeni. Umsebenzi webhayoloji wenziwa wedwa ngenxa yokuba iqanda livaliwe. Ifumana ukukhanya kuphela ngaphandle ukugcina umjikelo webhayoloji.

Ngale projekthi unokuba nombono wokuba nesibonelelo esijongana neemfuno ezisisiseko zokutya, amanzi kunye nomoya ukuze oosomajukujuku bafikelele kwenye iplanethi. Ke, ngale ndlela, i-NASA ithathela ingqalelo indalo njengeplanethi encinci yomhlaba kunye ne-shrimp isebenza njengabantu.

Ukugqitha kwimida yendalo

abantu bagqithile kumthamo wokuthwala

Ngombulelo koluvavanyo, sikwazile ukukuqonda kakuhle ukulinganisela kwendalo kwaye, ukuba nje imida iyahlonitshwa, kungakho ukuvumelana kunye nazo zonke iintlobo zezinto ezixhaswa yindawo eza kuba nakho ukuhlala. Oku kuyasinceda ukuba siqonde ukuba, kwiplanethi yethu, kugqithisiwe kwimida yendalo, kuba izinto eziguquguqukayo kwindalo zigqithile.

Ukwenza ukuqonda kwale mida yokuba i-ecosphere inokulula kancinci, kuya kufuneka sithathele ingqalelo ukuba i-ecosystem inezixhobo ezinomda kunye nendawo encinci. Ukuba sazisa iintlobo ezininzi kakhulu kuloo ndawo, ziya kukhuphisana ngezixhobo kunye nomhlaba. Iintlobo zivelisa kwaye zonyusa inani labo kunye nenani labantu, ke ibango lezixhobo kunye nomhlaba liyonyuka. Ukuba izinto eziphambili kunye nabathengi bokuqala bayanda, amarhamncwa nawo aya kwanda.

Le meko yokukhula ngokuqhubekayo ayinakuqhubeka ngokungenammiselo ngexesha, kuba oovimba abazinasiphelo. Xa iintlobo zingaphaya komthamo wezinto eziphilayo ukuze zihlaziye kwaye zigcine izibonelelo, iintlobo ziqala ukunciphisa inani labo de bafikelele kulungelelwaniso kwakhona.

Le yinto eyenzekayo ngabantu. Sikhula ngezinga elandayo nelingathintelekiyo kwaye sisebenzisa ubutyebi bendalo kwinqanaba apho iplanethi ingenalo ixesha lokuphinda lizihlaziye. Ubume bendalo beplanethi kudala bugqithisile ngabantu kwaye sinokuzama ukuyenza kwakhona ngolawulo olungcono kunye nokusetyenziswa kwazo zonke izixhobo.

Kuya kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba sineeplanethi enye kwaye kuxhomekeke kuthi ukuhlala kuyo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
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