Isebenza njani i-injini yomoya okanye i-windmill?

Ukufakwa kwe Windmill Kodwa njengoko umoya uba umbane? Isichazi ngqo sangoku oomatshini bomoya badala amatye okusila, ezisasetyenziswayo nanamhlanje, kwimisebenzi eyahlukeneyo enjengokukhupha amanzi okanye ukugaya iinkozo. A Iwindow Ngumatshini oneebhleyidi okanye iincakuba eziqhotyoshelwe kwishafu, eqala ukujikeleza xa kuvuthuza umoya.

Le shaft ijikelezayo inxulunyaniswa neentlobo ezahlukeneyo zoomatshini, umzekelo oomatshini bokugaya iinkozo, ukumpompa amanzi okanye ukuvelisa umbane.

Ukufumana umbane, Ukuhamba kweebhleyidi kuqhuba umvelisi wombane (enye into okanye idynamo) eguqula ifayile ye- amandla oomatshini Ujikelezo kwi amandla kagesi. Umbane unokugcinwa kwiibhetri okanye uthunyelwe ngqo kwigridi. Umsebenzi ulula, into enzima luphando nolwakhiwo lwe oomatshini bomoya ngokuya ngokufezekileyo.

Iindidi zeeNjini zomoya

Umatshini womoya unokuba ngu i-axis ethe tye, ezizezona zixhaphakileyo namhlanje, okanye zikho kwakhona i-axis ethe nkqo.

Ukusuka kwiWikipedia inkcazo ye- oomatshini bomoya abathe nkqo okanye ethe tyaba njengejenreyitha yombane ebalekayo Ukuguqula amandla e-kinetic omoya kumatshini oomatshini kunye nakwinjini yomoya kumandla ombane.

Abo bane-axis ethe nkqo bayama ngokungadingi indlela yokuqhelaniswa kwaye yintoni umvelisi wombane onokucwangciswa emhlabeni. Kwelinye icala, abo bane-axis ethe tyaba, vumela ukugubungela uluhlu olubanzi Ukusuka kwizicelo ezizimeleyo zamandla amancinci ukuya kufakela kwiifama ezinkulu zomoya.

Iiinjini zomoya ezime nkqo

Iiinjini zomoya ezime nkqo

Njengoko sele kukhankanyiwe, ii-injini zomoya ezimileyo okanye ezithe nkqo awudingi indlela yokuqhelaniswa, kwaye inokuba yintoni i-generator yombane enokufunyanwa ibekwe emhlabeni.

Su imveliso yamandla asezantsi kwaye inezithintelo ezincinci njengoko ifuna ukuqhuba ngemoto ukuze iqhubeke.

Kukho zintathu iindidi zeeinjini zomoya ezimileyo NjengoSavonius, uGiromill noDarrrieus.

Iintsilelo

Enye yeengxaki eziqhelekileyo oomatshini bomoya ubukhulu bayo obukhulu, ukongeza kwiintshukumo kunye nengxolo eziyibangelayo. Ngesi sizathu, zihlala zikwindawo ezikude namakhaya. Nangona kunjalo, iinkampani kunye nososayensi kwihlabathi liphela bayaqhubeka nokusebenza ukwakha oomatshini bomoya abancinci (Ungajonga kwinqaku ebelikade lenziwe ngombane omoya), o cwaka enokufumaneka kwiindawo ezisezidolophini.

ifama yomoya encinci

Kodwa enye yeengxaki ezixhalabisayo kwicandelo lokuveliswa kwe amandla omoya Kukungafani komthombo, oko kukuthi, komoya. Inkqubo ye- oomatshini bomoya Ngokubanzi, zilungiselelwe ukusebenza ngokugqibeleleyo xa kuvuthuza umoya ngaphakathi kwento ethile Uluhlu lwesantya. Kwelinye icala, kufuneka isantya esincinci esithile sokuhambisa iincakuba, kwelinye icala kukho umda ophezulu.

Umzekelo, eyona ixhaphakileyo kukuba le mida ikunye Isantya somoya esiphakathi kwe-3 kunye ne-24 yeemitha ngomzuzwana. Ubuncinci bubizwa ngokuba sisantya sonxibelelwano, oko kukuthi, ubuncinci bokuvelisa umbane othile, kwaye ubuninzi babizwa ngokuba sisantya sokunqunyulwa, oko kukuthi, xa sele inento yokwenza, kuba ingayaphula indlela.

Amacandelo einjini yomoya

 

Un Iwindow unokuba wedwa okanye ungene iifama zomoya, Kumhlaba owenza i iifama zomoya zonxweme, kunxweme lolwandle okanye banokufakwa emanzini kumgama othile ukusuka kunxweme kwinto ebizwa ngokuba yiyo Unxweme okanye ifama yomoya yonxweme.

Iinjini yomoya

UMgaqo-siseko weinjini yomoya okanye iinjini yomoya

Kukho amawaka eefama zomoya ezizele ziimodeli Intetho yesibongo, imvelaphi, ukuhambelana kwefayili Teeh (Ii-injini zomoya ezithe tyaba). Aba matshini benziwe ngala macandelo alandelayo.

Inqaba kunye nesiseko: Iziseko zenqaba zinokucaba okanye zinzulu, ziqinisekisa kuzo zombini iimeko uzinzo lomoya ojikelezayo, ukubotshwa kwe-nacelle kunye neencakuba zeemoto. Isiseko kufuneka kwakhona sithabathe imilo ebangelwe ngumahluko kunye namandla omoya.

 

Iinqaba zinokuba ziindidi ezahlukeneyo ngokuxhomekeke kwiimpawu zazo:

  • Ishubhu yentsimbiUninzi lweeinjini zomoya zakhiwe ngeentsimbi zetyhubhu.
  • Iinqaba zekhonkrithiZakhelwe endaweni enye, ukuvumela ukuphakama okuyimfuneko ukuba kubalwe.
  • Iinqaba zekhonkrithi Precast: Zihlanganiswe ngamaqhekeza esele zilungisiwe kwaye amacandelo azo abekwe kwindawo enye.
  • Ulwakhiwo lweLatticeZenziwe kusetyenziswa iiprofayili zentsimbi.
  • Iingxube: Banokuba neempawu kunye nezinto zeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zenqaba.
  • Iinqaba zemasti ezixineneyo ezinomoya: Zibonakaliswa ngokuba ziinjini zomoya ezinobukhulu obuncinci.

Indlu yeMinieolica

UkujikelezaI-Rotor "yintliziyo" yayo yonke i-windmill, njengoko ixhasa i-blade ze-turbine, ibashukumise ngomatshini nangokujikeleza ngokujikelezayo ukuze batshintshe isitshixo somoya sibe ngamandla.

iinxalenye zomoya

Igondola: Yeyona ntloko ibonakalayo yomoya ojikelezayo, isigcina-ntloko esifihla sigcine bonke oomatshini bomoya. Igondola ijoyina inqaba usebenzisa iibheringi ukuze ukwazi ukulandela ulwalathiso lomoya.

Ibhokisi ephindaphindayo: Ukongeza ekukwazini ukumelana nokwahluka komoya, ibhokisi yegiye inomsebenzi wokudibanisa isantya sokujikeleza esisezantsi seRotor kunye nezantya eziphezulu zomvelisi. Njengoko ilizwi lakhe lisitsho; Uyakwazi ukuphinda-phinda i-18-50 rpm eveliswe kukuhamba kwendalo kwirotor kwi-1.750 rpm xa ishiya umvelisi.

irola

UmvelisiKukujongana nokuguqula amandla oomatshini abe ngumbane. Kwiinjini zombane eziphezulu, kusetyenziswa iijenereyitha ezondla ngokutya okuphindwe kabini, nangona iijenreyitha eziqhelekileyo kunye ne-asynchronous generator zininzi.

Iziqhoboshi: Kusetyenziswa iziqhoboshi zoomatshini kuloliwe wamandla, kunyanzelekile kuzo umlinganiso ophezulu wokungqubana kwi-static kunye nokumelana okukhulu noxinzelelo.

Izixhobo zombane zomoya ojikelezayo okanye isixhobo somoya

Iinjini zomoya zanamhlanje azenziwanga kuphela ngamacangci kunye nomvelisi wokuzisa amandla atshiphu emakhaya. Iinjini zomoya kufuneka zibene inkqubo yonikezelo lwamandla kunye nezivamvo ezininzi. Le yokugqibela iyakwazi ukujonga nokulinganisa ubushushu, ulwalathiso lomoya, isantya sayo kunye nezinye iiparameter ezinokuvela ngaphakathi kwegondola okanye kwindawo engqongileyo.

Amandla omoya

Izinto eziluncedo ngeeinjini zomoya ezikhawulezayo xa kuthelekiswa nezicothayo

Olona ncedo lukhulu lwezinto ezibizwa ngokuba yi "slow wind turbines" kukuba banazo iincakuba ezininzi ukuba ii-rapids kunye nezixhobo zazo zihlala zihlala ngexabiso eliphantsi. Kodwa zithini iingxaki zakho? Ngaphandle kweedayimitha zazo ezinkulu (ukusuka kwi-40 ukuya kwi-90 yeemitha ukuphakama) kwaye inee rotors ezineentloko ezifikelela kwi-100 m, oomatshini bomoya ngokukhawuleza kulula ngaphezu kwezicothayo.

Oku kuphunyezwe ngombulelo kubavelisi bamandla aphezulu (i-0,5 ukuya kwi-3 MW) ethatha ngaphezulu nangakumbi umlinganiselo wamandla omoya ophakamileyo.

Ukukhanya, ii-blade zihamba ngokukhawuleza, ke ubukhulu kunye ixabiso lebhokisi lokuphindaphinda oqhuba umbane wenkunkuma iyancitshiswa.

Ngokuba nenani elincinci lamacici, ezi zinokuhlengahlengiswa ngokulula ngakumbi ukuze zilungelelanise amandla azo ngokweempawu zomoya. Iinjini zomoya ezikhawulezayo ziyamelana ngcono Uxinzelelo olubangelwa kukuvuthuza komoya. I-axial thrust ngenxa yesenzo somoya kwi-rotor emileyo incinci kwii-injini zomoya ezikhawulezayo kunokuba zijika; okwahlukileyo kwenzeka kwi iiinjini zomoya ezicothayo.

Eyona moya inamandla emhlabeni

IVestas ivelise uhlaziyo lwenjini enkulu yomoya emhlabeni. Andinazo izichazi zokuchaza ukuba inkulu kangakanani le injini. I-V164, i-220 yemitha yomoya kunye ne Iitoni ezingama-38, iimitha ezingama-80 ubudeIjongise nje yonke ingqalelo yabo banomdla wokuvuselelwa eDenmark.

I-turbine yangaphambili ibinakho ukuhambisa amandla e-8 MW, kwaye ngenxa yohlaziyo ngoku iyakwazi ukufikelela ukuya kuthi ga I-9 MW imveliso phantsi kweemeko ezithile. Kuvavanyo lwayo lokuqala, i-V164 yayi Iyakwazi ukuvelisa i-216.000 kWh ngeeyure ezingama-24 kuphela.

Iinjini yomoya

Ayisiyo kuphela irekhodi elipheleleyo lokuveliswa kwamandla omoya ngumbane omnye, kodwa ngumboniso ocacileyo wokuba imimoya yolwandle izakuba nayo indima ephambili kutshintsho lwamandla esele iqhubeka.

Kwanele ukuphatha ikhaya iminyaka engama-66

NgokukaTorben UHvid Larsen, IVestas CTO:

"Wethu prototype isete enye irekhodi lesizukulwana, nge 216.000 kWh eveliswe kwisithuba seeyure ezingama-24. Siqinisekile ukuba le turbine yomoya eyi-9 MW ibonakalise ukuba ikulungele ukuthengisa, kwaye sikholelwa ekubeni izakudlala indima ebalulekileyo ekwehliseni amaxabiso omoya aselunxwemeni. "

 

Ngokwesiqhelo ukuthetha ngeekilowatts kunzima kwaye kungabonakali. Kodwa ngokwemibutho esemthethweni, Umyinge wokusetyenziswa kombane kwikhaya laseSpain ngama-3.250 kWh ngonyaka. Inani elithe xhaxhe kancinci kunomyinge wosetyenziso lwendawo yokuhlala ezidolophini kwizixeko eziphambili zoMzantsi Merika. Ukuthathela ingqalelo oku, ngemini yemveliso inokubonelela ngombane kwindlu ephakathi ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-66.

Enkulu kuneTorres Kio eMadrid kwaye ifana noSodolophu waseTorre eMexico, umjikelo wabo mkhulu kunevili lesinyithi leLondon yeLondon eLondon. Le injini Yindaleko ye-V164-8.0 MW, injini yomoya leyo sele ephule iirekhodi ngowama-2014 kwaye iyakwazi ukunika amandla amakhaya angama-16.000 aseBrithani.

Iinjini yomoya


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