Isebenza kanjani imoto yombane

Isebenza njani i-injini yombane

Akungabazeki ukuba izithuthi zombane zikhula ngokukhawuleza. Ubuchwephesha obuninzi buphantsi kophuhliso lokuphucula ukusebenza kakuhle kwezi njini. Nangona kunjalo, ababaninzi abantu abaziyo Isebenza njani i-injini yombane.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela indlela imoto yombane esebenza ngayo, zeziphi iindawo zayo kunye neenzuzo ekusebenziseni kwayo.

Izithuthi zombane

Isebenza njani injini yemoto yombane?

Zimbalwa iindawo ezihambayo, umsebenzi olula nothembekileyo, akukho mfuneko yefriji okanye ibhokisi yegiya yemveli. Kangangeminyaka emininzi, iimoto zombane zisemilebeni yomntu wonke. Le yayiyenye yezona nguqulelo ziphambili zelo xesha, kuba imoto yokuqala enebhetri Yaqanjwa nguRobert Anderson ngowe-1839. Nangona kunjalo, abazi kakhulu malunga nendlela iimoto zombane ezisebenza ngayo.

UTesla uqhayise ngelithi ekuphela kweendawo zokugcina iimoto abanini beemoto ekufuneka bezalisile yiwasha yefestile yomoya kunye neendawo zokugcina amanzi ebhuleki. Oku kungenxa yokuba imoto yombane yemoto ayivelisi ubushushu obaneleyo ukuze ifune inkqubo yokupholisa yesiko, ayifuni kuthambisa iindawo ezihambayo, Ayina gearbox ene clutch yesintu, kwaye ikwafuna ulwelo oluthile ukuqinisekisa ingqibelelo yayo kunye nolawulo lobushushu.

Iinxalenye zemoto yombane

iinzuzo zemoto yombane

Ngaphambi kokuba siqonde umgaqo osebenzayo we-injini yemoto yombane, kufuneka sazi ukuba zeziphi iinqununu zayo, kuba asikwazi ukufumana iipistons, iisilinda, i-crankshafts, okanye iinkqubo zokukhupha, ukukhankanya nje ezimbalwa. Amalungu enkqubo yombane ahlulwe abe ngamaqela amane aphambili: itshaja ekwibhodi, ibhetri, isiguquli kunye nemoto ngokwayo. Ngokudibeneyo, banoxanduva lokuguqula amandla ombane esiwabiza ebhetrini ngegalelo lentlawulo ephathwayo kumavili. Le yindima yecandelo ngalinye:

  • Itshaja engaphakathi ebhodini: Inoxanduva lokuguqula amandla ombane ukusuka kwindawo yokutshaja ye-AC ibe ngumbane othe ngqo kwaye uwaqokelele ebhetrini.
  • Isiguquli: ojongene nokuguqula amandla ukusuka kwi-DC ukuya kwi-AC kunye nokuchasene, kuxhomekeke ekubeni sihamba ngokukhawuleza okanye sinciphisa. Ikwanoxanduva lokulawula injini ngokwesicelo somqhubi.
  • Injini yombane: iguqula amandla ombane abe yintshukumo. Kwinqanaba lokuthomalalisa, inokubuyisela amandla okuqhobosha, iguqule amandla e-kinetic abe ngamandla ombane kwaye iwagcine ebhetrini, oko kukuthi, ukuqhobosha ngokutsha.
  • Ibhetri: Sisixhobo sokugcina amandla ombane esenziwe ngeebhetri ezincinci. Yitanki yamafutha yemoto yombane.

Isebenza kanjani imoto yombane

iinxalenye zenjini

Ngaphakathi kwi-motor sine-stator, eyindawo emileyo ye-motor, kunye ne-wingings eyahlukeneyo, i-current edlula kula ma-windings. izakuvelisa umhlaba ojikelezayo wemagnethi kwistator. Embindini, sifumana i-rotor, eyinxalenye ehambayo equlethe i-fixed magnetic field. Intsimi yamagnetic ejikelezayo kwi-stator idonsa kwaye ijikeleze i-fixed magnetic field ye-rotor. Oku ke, kujikelezisa amavili emoto yombane ngothotho lweegiya, ngaloo ndlela ivelisa intshukumo.

Kwakhona kunomdla ukuqonda indlela izithuthi zombane ezilawula ngayo amandla kwizigaba ezahlukeneyo zokusetyenziswa kwazo. Sifumana izigaba ezimbini ezahlukeneyo, isigaba sokukhawulezisa kunye nesigaba sokunciphisa, esilawulwa ngokuthe ngqo ngumqhubi.

Kuzo zombini ezi meko, ngokungafaniyo ne-injini yobushushu, i-motor yombane inokufaka amandla okuvelisa ukunyakaza okanye ukuguqula amandla e-kinetic (ukushukuma) kumandla ombane ukutshaja ibhetri.

  • Inqanaba lokukhawulezisa: Kwinqanaba lokukhawuleza, amandla ombane ngendlela yangoku ngokuthe ngqo adluliswa kwibhetri ukuya kwisiguquli, kwaye umguquleli unoxanduva lokuguqula lo mandla ombane ukusuka kumbane othe ngqo ukuya kwi-alternating current. Oku kufikelela kwi-motor, ehambisa i-rotor ngenkqubo echazwe ngasentla, kwaye ekugqibeleni iba yintshukumo yamavili.
  • Inqanaba lokunciphisa: Kweli nqanaba, intshukumo iguqulwa. Esi sigaba siqala ngamavili, kwaye amavili ahamba emva kokuphela kwesigaba sokukhawuleza, oko kukuthi, xa sithatha iinyawo zethu kwi-accelerator. I-motor ivelisa ukuxhathisa kwaye iguqula amandla e-kinetic abe ngumsinga otshintshisayo, oguqulwa ubuyele umva ngokuthe ngqo ngokusebenzisa isiguquli kwaye ugcinwe ebhetri. Le nkqubo iphinda yenzeke ngexesha lokuvuselela i-braking yezithuthi zombane.

Iindidi

Nje ukuba siyazi ukuba isebenza njani imoto yombane, siza kubona ukuba zeziphi ezona ntlobo zikhoyo:

Injini ethe ngqo (DC): sIsetyenziswe kwiimeko apho kubalulekile ukukwazi ukulungelelanisa ngokuqhubekayo isantya se-injini. Olu hlobo lwemoto kufuneka lube nenani elifanayo lezibonda kwi-rotor kunye ne-stator kunye nenani elifanayo lekhabhoni. Iinjini zeDC zinokwahlulwa zibe ziindidi ezintathu:

  • series
  • Ngokunxuseneyo
  • Umxube

IiMotor zangoku (AC) ezitshintshanayo: Ezi ziinjini ezihamba kumbane otshintshanayo. Imoto yombane iguqula amandla ombane abe ngamandla ajikelezayo ngokunxibelelana kwemagnethi.

Izinto ezilungileyo zemoto yombane

Zininzi iingenelo ezinikwa ukusetyenziswa kwemoto yombane xa kuthelekiswa nesiqhelo. Siza kudwelisa ukuba zeziphi iingenelo eziphambili:

  • Ukungabikho kokukhutshwa kwegesi.
  • Ukusebenza okuthe cwaka.
  • Ukukhululeka kokuphatha.
  • Ithuba lokuyitshaja kwakhona kuyo nayiphi na indawo yokuphuma.
  • Ithuba lokuyitshaja kwakhona ngamandla avuselelekayo (amandla omoya kunye namandla elanga).
  • Inketho yemoto ye-DC.
  • IiMotor ezineebrashi zeDC, ezinokuba nebala lenxeba okanye ezinomazibuthe osisigxina.
  • I-motor induction, elula kakhulu kwaye isebenza kakuhle.
  • Uninzi lweenjini zombane zinokunika amandla aphezulu ngamaxesha amafutshane.
  • Iinkqubo zezithuthi zombane zezo zinethuba lokuba ne-regenerative braking Inkwenkwezi & yeka, (ezenza kube nokwenzeka ukusebenzisa amandla adla ngokulahleka xa kuqholwa)

Kodwa eyona moto igqwesileyo yombane, Kukungeniswa kwesigaba esithathu kunye nesilawuli sombane esine-braking yokuvuselela. I-injini, ngokutsho kwabo, inokufezekisa ukuzimela okugqwesileyo kunye ne-zero ekhutshwayo engcolisayo.

Njengoko ubona, ukufunda indlela imoto yombane esebenza ngayo kunokuqinisekisa ukwanda kokusetyenziswa kobu buchwepheshe buguqukayo. Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nendlela imoto yombane esebenza ngayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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