Yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga ne-bioenergy okanye i-biomass energy

Ingca

Kwinqaku elingaphambili ebendithetha ngalo amandla ombane Ndaye ndaphawula ukuba amandla ahlaziyekayo akhoyo kulo mhlaba, kukho awaziwa ngcono kwaye asetyenziswa, anjengelanga kunye namandla omoya, kwaye amanye awaziwa kangako (ngamanye amaxesha phantse awabizwa ngamagama) leya yebiomass.

Amandla e-biomass okanye abizwa ngokuba isishwankathelo ayaziwa kwaye isetyenziswa kunezinye iintlobo zamandla ahlaziyekayo. Kule posi siza kuyazi yonke into enxulumene nolu hlobo lwamandla ahlaziyekayo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo okunokwenzeka.

Yintoni i-biomass energy okanye i-bioenergy?

Amandla e-Biomass luhlobo lwamandla ahlaziyekayo afunyanwa ngalo ukutshiswa kwezinto eziphilayo ezifumaneka kwiinkqubo zendalo. Zizinto eziphilayo ezinjengeentsalela zokuthena, amatye omnquma, amagobolondo e-nut, intsalela yemithi, njl Oko kuvela kwindalo. Ungatsho ukuba yinkcitho yendalo.

inkunkuma yendalo

Ezi ntsalela ziphilayo zitshiswa Ukutsha ngokuthe ngqo okanye unokuguqulwa ube ngamanye amafutha njengotywala, imethanol okanye ioyile, kwaye ngaloo ndlela sifumana amandla. Ngenkunkuma yendalo sinokufumana i-biogas.

Imithombo eyahlukeneyo yokufumana i-bioenergy

Olona phawu lubalulekileyo lwe-bioenergy kukuba luhlobo lwe amandla avuselelwe kwaye, ke, uzinzo kuluntu kunye nokusetyenziswa kwalo kwamandla. Njengoko besenditshilo ngaphambili, la mandla afunyanwa ngokutsha kweentlobo ezahlukeneyo zenkunkuma, nokuba yeyamahlathi okanye yezolimo, ebingazukusetyenziswa kwaphela. Nangona kunjalo, siza kubona ukuba zeziphi iintlobo zemithombo ye-biomass ezisetyenziselwa ukuveliswa kwezinto eziphilayo kunye nezinto ezisetyenziselwa zona:

  • I-Bioenergy inokufumaneka izityalo zamandla ezenzelwe zona kuphela. Ezi zezinye zeentlobo zezityalo kude kube ngoku zibe zingenamsebenzi wesondlo okanye kubomi babantu, kodwa ezizezona zilungileyo zokuvelisa i-biomass. Kungenxa yoko le nto sisebenzisa olu hlobo lweentlobo zezityalo ukuvelisa i-bioenergy.
  • I-Bioenergy inokufumaneka ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo ukuxhaphaza imisebenzi yamahlathi, xa iintsalela zehlathi zingenakusetyenziswa okanye zithengiselwe eminye imisebenzi. Ukucoca ezi ntsalela zehlathi kunenzuzo yokuba, ukongeza kwigalelo ekucocweni kweendawo nakwimveliso yamandla azinzileyo, kuthintela imililo enokubakho ngenxa yokutshiswa kwamathambo.

iintsalela zezolimo ze-biomass

  • Omnye umthombo wenkunkuma ekuveliseni i-bioenergy kukusetyenziswa kwe-linkqubo yenkunkuma. Oku kunokuvela kwiivenkile zokuchwela okanye kwiifektri ezisebenzisa iinkuni njengezinto ezingafunekiyo. Inokuvela nakwinkunkuma elahlwayo enje ngemingxuma yomnquma okanye iiqokobhe zeamangile.

Yenziwa njani i-biomass energy?

Amandla afunyenwe kwizintso eziphilayo aveliswa ngokutsha kwabo. Oku kuvutha kwenzeka ngaphakathi iibhoyili apho izinto zivutha kancinci kancinci. Le nkqubo ivelisa uthuthu olunokusetyenziswa kamva kwaye lusetyenziswe njengomgquba. Isihlanganisi sinokufakwa ukuze sikwazi ukugcina ubushushu obugqithisileyo obuvelisiweyo kwaye sikwazi ukusebenzisa la mandla kamva.

IBoomass boilers

IBoomass boilers

Iimveliso eziphambili ezivela kwi-biomass

Ngenkunkuma yendalo, izibaso ezinje:

  • IiBiofuels: Ezi zinto zifumaneka kwizilwanyana nakwizityalo. Uhlobo lwala masalela luyavuseleleka, Oko kukuthi, zihlala ziveliswa kwindalo kwaye aziphelelwanga. Ukusetyenziswa kwee-biofuels kwenza ukuba kube nakho ukubuyisela endaweni yeoyile efumaneka kwioyile. Ukufumana i-biofuel, iintlobo ezinokusetyenziswa kwezolimo, ezinje ngombona kunye necassava, okanye izityalo ezinamagqabi anjengeembotyi zesoya, oojongilanga okanye iintende zingasetyenziswa. Iindidi zehlathi ezifana ne-eucalyptus kunye nemipayini nazo zinokusetyenziswa. Inzuzo yokusingqongileyo yokusebenzisa i-biofuels kukuba yenza umjikelo wekhabhoni ovaliweyo. Ngamanye amagama, ikhabhoni ekhutshwa ngexesha lokutsha kwe-biofuel ibisele ifunxwe zizityalo ngexesha lokukhula kwazo kunye nemveliso. Nangona oku kungoku kuxoxwa okoko ibhalansi ye-CO2 ekhutshiweyo kwaye ikhutshiwe ayinakulinganiswa.

Iibhayoloji

  • IBiodiesel: Le yenye ye-biofuel engamanzi eveliswa kwizinto ezinokuhlaziywa kunye nezixhobo zasekhaya ezinjengeoyile yemifuno okanye amafutha ezilwanyana. Ayinayo i-petroleum, iyabola kwaye ayinetyhefu kuba ayinasulphur kunye necarcinogenic compounds.
  • IBioethanol: Lo mafutha aveliswa njengesiphumo sokubila kunye nokucoca isitatshi esiqulathwe kwi-biomass, eyayifudula ikhutshwa ziinkqubo ze-enzymatic. Ifunyanwa ngezi zinto zivelisiweyo: isitatshi kunye neenkozo (ingqolowa, umbona, irye, umdumba, iitapile, irayisi) kunye neeswekile (ummoba womhlanga, i-beet molasses, isiraphu yeswekile, i-fructose, i-whey).
  • Biogas: Le gesi iyimveliso yokubola kwe-anaerobic yezinto eziphilayo. Kwiindawo zokulahla inkunkuma ezingcwatyiweyo, i-biogas ikhutshwa ngesekethe yombhobho kusetyenziselwa amandla ayo alandelayo.

Isebenziselwa ntoni i-biomass kwaye isetyenziselwa ntoni intsimi yethu?

Ngokubanzi nangaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi ngokufanayo kumandla obushushu bomhlaba, i-biomass isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa ubushushu. Kwinqanaba lezentengiselwano sinokufumana ukusetyenziswa kobushushu obuchaziweyo bokuveliswa kwamandla ombane, nangona kunzima kakhulu kwaye kuyabiza. Ukuze usebenzise ubushushu obuveliswa kukutsha kwenkunkuma yendalo, ii-biomass boilers zifakwe emakhayeni ukuze zifudumeze kwaye zifudumeze namanzi.

Kwintsimi yethu, iSpain ise indawo yesine kumazwe asebenzisa elona xabiso liphezulu le-biomass. ISpain yinkokeli yaseYurophu kwimveliso ye-bioethanol. Izibalo zibonisa ukuba i-biomass eSpain iyafikelela phantse iipesenti ezingama-45 zemveliso yamandla ahlaziyekayo. I-Andalusia, iGalicia kunye neCastilla y León ziindawo ezizimeleyo ezinokusetyenziswa okuphezulu ngenxa yobukho beenkampani ezisebenzisa i-biomass. Ukuvela kokusetyenziswa kwe-biomass kuvelisa iinketho zetekhnoloji entsha kwaye kuya kusanda kuphuhliselwa ukusetyenziswa kwayo kwimveliso yamandla ombane.

IBoomass boilers kunye nokusebenza kwazo

IiBoomass boilers zisetyenziswa njengomthombo wamandla e-biomass kunye nokuvelisa ubushushu kumakhaya nakwizakhiwo. Basebenzisa izibaso zendalo ezinje Iipellets zokhuni, imingxuma yomnquma, intsalela yehlathi, iigobolondo ze nut, njl. Zikwasetyenziselwa ukufudumeza amanzi emakhaya nakwizakhiwo.

Umsebenzi uyafana nalowo wesinye isixhobo sokubilisa amanzi. Ezi boilers zitshisa ipetroli kwaye zivelise ilangatye elithe tyaba elingena kwisekethe yamanzi kwindawo yokuhambisa ubushushu, ngaloo ndlela lifumana amanzi ashushu enkqubo. Ukuphucula ukusetyenziswa kwebhoyila kunye nezinto eziphilayo ezinje ngamafutha, kunokufakwa isixhobo esigcina ubushushu obuveliswe ngendlela efanayo neephaneli zelanga.

IBoomass boilers

IBoomass boilers yezakhiwo. Umthombo: http://www.solarsostenible.org/tag/calderas-biomasa/

Ukugcina inkunkuma yendalo eza kusetyenziswa njengepetroli, iibhoyili kufuneka zenziwe isikhongozeli sokugcina. Ukusuka kweso sikhongozeli, ngokusebenzisa isikrufu esingapheliyo okanye isondlo esitsalelayo, iyisa kwibhoyila, apho kwenzeka khona umlilo. Lo mlilo uvelisa uthuthu ekufuneka lukhutshwe amatyeli aliqela ngonyaka kwaye luqokeleleka kwisitya somlotha.

Iindidi zebheyile ye-biomass

Xa ukhetha ukuba loluphi uhlobo lwee-boomass boilers esiza kuzithenga nokuzisebenzisa, kufuneka sihlalutye inkqubo yokugcina kunye nenkqubo yothutho kunye nokuphatha. Ezinye zokubilisa vumela ukutshisa ngaphezu kolunye uhlobo lwamafutha, Ngelixa ezinye (ezinje ngee-boiler zepelethi) zivumela kuphela uhlobo olunye lwamafutha ukuba atshise.

Iibhoyila ezivumela ukutsha ngaphezulu kwesidingo samafutha ukwanda komthamo wokugcina kuba zinkulu ubukhulu namandla. Ezi zihlala zenzelwe ukusetyenziswa kwemizi-mveliso.

Kwelinye icala siyamfumanaNjengeebheyili zepelethi Ezona zixhaphakileyo kumandla aphakathi kwaye zisetyenziselwa ukufudumeza kunye namanzi ashushu asekhaya kusetyenziswa izinto zokuqokelela kumakhaya afikelela kwi-500 m2.

Izibonelelo zokusebenzisa amandla e-biomass

Phakathi kwezibonelelo esizifumana ekusebenziseni i-biomass njengamandla esinawo:

  • Ngamandla ahlaziyekayo. Sithetha ngosetyenziso lwenkunkuma eveliswa yindalo ukuvelisa amandla. Kungenxa yoko le nto sinomthombo wamandla ongapheliyo, kuba indalo ivelisa ezi ntlobo zenkunkuma ngokuqhubekayo.
  • Iyanciphisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi. Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, izinto ezikhutshwayo esizivelisayo ngexesha lokutsha kwazo bezikade zifunxwe zizityalo ngexesha lokukhula kwazo kunye nemveliso yazo. Oku kuyimpikiswano namhlanje, kuba ibhalansi ye-CO2 ekhutshiweyo kunye nokufakwa ayilingani.
Isityalo seBiomass

Indawo yokunyanga iBiomass. Umthombo: http://www.fundacionsustrai.org/incineracion-biomasa

  • Ixabiso lentengiso liphantsi. Ukusetyenziswa kwamandla okuqulathwe kwi-biomass kunezoqoqosho kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa ne-fuels fuels. Ihlala ihlawula isinye kwisithathu.
  • IBiomass sisixhobo esinobuninzi kwihlabathi liphela. Phantse kuzo zonke iindawo emhlabeni, inkunkuma yenziwa kwindalo kwaye iyasetyenziselwa ukusetyenziswa kwayo. Ukongeza, ngokubanzi, iziseko zophuhliso ezinkulu akukho mfuneko yokuzisa inkunkuma kwindawo yayo yokutsha.

Ukungancedi kokusebenzisa amandla e-biomass

Iziphene zokusebenzisa la mandla zimbalwa, kodwa kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo:

  • Kweminye imimandla, ngenxa yeemeko ezinzima kakhulu zokukhutshwa kwe-biomass, ingabiza. Oku kuhlala kwenzeka ekusetyenzisweni kweeprojekthi ezibandakanya ukuqokelelwa, ukulungiswa kunye nokugcinwa kwezinye iintlobo zebhayomsi.
  • Iindawo ezinkulu ziyafuneka Iinkqubo ezisetyenziselwa ukufumana amandla e-biomass, ngakumbi ukugcina, kuba iintsalela zihlala zixinene.
  • Ngamanye amaxesha ukusetyenziswa kwala mandla kunokubangela ukonakaliswa kwendalo okanye ukwahlulwa ngenxa yemisebenzi yokuqokelelwa kwebiomass kunye notshintsho lweendawo zendalo zokufumana izibonelelo.

Ngale mibono unokuba nombono obanzi wolu hlobo lwamandla ahlaziyekayo. Nangona kunjalo, ngesinye isihlandlo ndiza kukuxelela ngakumbi malunga neendidi ze-biomass boilers, ukusebenza kwazo, iintlobo kunye nezinto eziluncedo ngazo, nangengxabano esele ikhankanyiwe malunga nokukhutshwa emoyeni.

 


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