Imitha yenyukliya

izityalo zamandla enyukliya

Kwintsimi yamandla enyukliya, Imitha yenyukliya. Kukwaziwa ngegama le-radioactivity. Kukukhutshwa okuzenzekelayo kwamasuntswana okanye imitha okanye zombini ngexesha elinye. La masuntswana kunye nemitha zivela ekwahlukaneni kwee-nuclide ezithile ezizenzayo. Injongo yamandla enyukliya kukwahlulahlula ngaphakathi izakhiwo zeeathom ukuvelisa amandla ngenkqubo yokuqhekeka kwenyukliya.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni imitha yenyukliya, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

iindawo eziyingozi zenyukliya

Ukusasazeka kwemitha ngu ukukhutshwa ngokukhawuleza kweengqungquthela okanye i-radiation, okanye zombini. La masuntswana kunye nokusasazeka ngemitha kuvela kokwehla kwee-nuclide ezithile ezizenzayo. Bahlakazeke ngenxa yelungiselelo lezinto zangaphakathi.

Ukubola kwe-radioactive kwenzeka kwi-nuclei engazinzanga. Oko kukuthi, abo bangenawo amandla awaneleyo okubopha ukubamba ii-nuclei kunye. UAntoine-Henri Becquerel wafumanisa ngemitha ngengozi. Kamva, ngovavanyo luka-Becquerel, uMadame Curie wafumanisa ezinye izinto ezinemitha yeathom. Zimbini iintlobo zemitha yenyukliya: eyomatshini yendalo kunye neyendalo.

I-radioactivity yendalo yiradioactivity eyenzeka kwindalo ngenxa yetyathanga lezinto ezinemitha ye-radioactive kunye nemithombo engeyoyabantu. Ihlala ikhona kwindalo esingqongileyo. Umsebenzi we-radioactivity wendalo unokunyuswa ngezi ndlela zilandelayo:

  • Izizathu zendalo. Umzekelo, ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo.
  • Izizathu ezingangqalanga zabantu. Umzekelo, ukumba phantsi komhlaba ukwakha isiseko sesakhiwo okanye ukuphuhlisa amandla enyukliya.

Kwelinye icala, i-radioactivity eyenziweyo yiyo yonke imitha ye-radioactive okanye ye-ionizing yemvelaphi yomntu. Umahluko kuphela phakathi kwemitha yendalo kunye nemitha eyenziwe ngumntu ngumthombo wayo. Iziphumo zeendidi ezimbini zemitha ziyafana. Umzekelo weradiactivity yokufakelwa ngu i-radioactivity eveliswe kunyango lwenyukliya okanye iimpembelelo zenyukliya kwizityalo zamandla enyukliya ukufumana amandla ombane.

Kuzo zombini iimeko, i-radiation ngokuthe ngqo yi-alpha radiation kunye nokubola kwe-beta okwenziwe zii-elektroni. Kwelinye icala, imitha ye-ionizing engathanga ngqo yimitha ye-electromagnetic, njengemitha ye-gamma, eyi-photons. Xa kusetyenziswa imithombo yelanga eyenziwe ngumntu, njengemithombo yendalo yemitha, isetyenziswa okanye ilahlwa, inkunkuma eqhumayo iyenziwa ngokubanzi.

Iindidi zemitha yenyukliya

Imitha yenyukliya

Zintathu iintlobo zemitha yenyukliya ezazikhutshwa: imitha ye-alpha, i-beta kunye ne-gamma. Iindidi zeAlfa zezo zinentlawulo elungileyo, amasuntswana e-beta awathabathanga, kwaye imitha ye-gamma ayithathi cala.

Inokuqwalaselwa Imitha yombane kwi-gamma radiation kunye ne-X-ray. Amasuntswana avela kwimisebe ye-alpha kunye ne-beta nawo akhutshwa. Uhlobo ngalunye lokuphuma lunexesha elahlukileyo lokungena kumbandela kunye namandla e-ionization. Siyazi ukuba olu hlobo lwemitha yenyukliya lunokubangela umonakalo omkhulu kubomi ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo. Siza kuhlalutya nganye imitha yenyukliya ekhoyo kunye neziphumo zayo:

Amasuntswana eAlfa

IAlfa (α) amasuntswana okanye imitha ye-alpha yindlela ye-radiation ene-ionizing yamasuntswana emitha. Iphantse ayinamandla okungena kwizicubu kuba zinkulu. Zenziwe ziiproton ezimbini kunye nee-neutron ezimbini, ezibanjwa kunye yimikhosi enamandla.

Imitha yeAlfa, ngenxa yetyala labo lombane, inxibelelana kakhulu nomcimbi. Baxhamla lula kwizinto eziphathekayo. Banokubhabha kuphela iisentimitha ezimbalwa emoyeni. Banokungena kumaleko angaphandle wolusu lomntu, ngenxa yoko aboyikisi ubomi ngaphandle kokuba umthombo uphefumlelwe okanye ungenisiwe. Kule meko, nangona kunjalo, umonakalo uya kuba mkhulu kunokuba ubangelwe yiyo nayiphi na enye imitha ebangela ubushushu. Kwiidosi eziphezulu, zonke iimpawu ezibonakalayo zetyhefu yemitha ziya kuvela.

Amasuntswana eBeta

Imitha ye-Beta luhlobo lwemitha ye-ionizing ekhutshwa ziindidi ezithile ze-radioactive nuclei. Xa kuthelekiswa nokunxibelelana kwamasuntswana e-alpha, unxibelelwano phakathi kwamasuntswana e-beta kunye nomba uhlala unoluhlu oluphindwe kalishumi kunye nomthamo we-ionization olingana nesinye kwishumi. Zivalwe ngokupheleleyo ziimilimitha ezimbalwa zealuminium.

Amasuntswana eGamma

Imitha ye-Gamma yimitha ye-electromagnetic ekhutshwa yiradioactivity. Bazinzisa i-nucleus ngaphandle kokutshintsha umxholo wayo weproton. Bangena nzulu kune β radiation, kodwa baneqondo eliphantsi le-ionization.

Xa i-nucleus evuyisayo ikhupha i-gamma radiation, ubunzima bayo kunye nenombolo ye-athomu ayizukutshintsha. Uya kulahla kuphela isixa esithile samandla. Imitha ye-Gamma inokubangela umonakalo omkhulu kwiiseli ze-cell, yiyo loo nto isetyenziselwa ukubulala ukutya kunye nezixhobo zonyango.

Imitha yenyukliya kwizityalo zamandla

umsebenzi werediyo

Isityalo samandla enyukliya sisixhobo soshishino esisebenzisa amandla enyukliya ukuvelisa umbane. Inxalenye yosapho lwezityalo zamandla ashushu, oko kuthetha ukuba isebenzisa ubushushu ukwenza umbane. Obu bushushu buvela kukungqinwa kwezinto ezifana ne-uranium kunye neplutonium. Ukusebenza kwezixhobo zamandla enyukliya kusekelwe ukusetyenziswa kobushushu ukuqhuba iiturbines ngokwenza umphunga wamanzi, Eziqhagamshelwe kwiijenereyitha. Isamkeli sefisi yenyukliya sisixhobo esinokuthi siqalise, sigcine kwaye silawule iimpendulo zentsimbi, kunye neendlela ezifanelekileyo zokususa ubushushu obuvelisiweyo. Ukufumana umphunga wamanzi, i-uranium okanye iplutonium isetyenziswa njengamafutha. Inkqubo inokwenziwa lula ngokwamanqanaba amahlanu:

  • Ukuchithwa kwe-uranium kwenzeka kwisixhobo senyukliya, sikhuphe amandla amaninzi ukufudumeza amanzi ade abe ngumphunga.
  • Umphunga uhanjiswa kumvelisi weinjini yomphunga ebekwe ngomphunga.
  • Xa ulapho, iincakuba zeinjini ziyajikeleza kwaye zihambise iijeneretha phantsi kwentshukumo yomphunga.
  • Xa umphunga wamanzi udlula kwiturbine, uthunyelwa kwi-condenser, apho upholile kwaye ujike ube lulwelo.
  • Emva koko, amanzi ayahanjiswa ukuze afumane umphunga kwakhona, ngaloo ndlela kuvalwa isekethe yamanzi.

Iintsalela ze-uranium fission zigcinwa ngaphakathi kumzi-mveliso, kumadama akhethekileyo ekhonkrithi ezinto ezinemitha yeathom.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba yintoni imitha yenyukliya kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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