Ingozi yenyukliya yaseChernobyl

Enye yeengozi zenyukliya eziyintlekele kwimbali kwaye yaziwa kwihlabathi liphela ibe yingozi IChernobyl. Ithathelwa ingqalelo njengeyona ngozi yenyukliya imbi embalini kwaye, nanamhlanje, kukho iziphumo kuzo zombini izilwanyana, izilwanyana kunye nabantu. Ingozi yenzeke ngo-Epreli 26, 1986 kwaye kusekho iziphumo. Le ntlekele yayiyeyomzuzu wokuntywila kwimfazwe ebandayo kunye nembali yamandla enyukliya. Izazinzulu ziqikelela ukuba indawo ejikeleze isityalo esidala samandla enyukliya ayizukuhlala iminyaka engama-20.000 XNUMX.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into eyenzekileyo kwaye zithini iziphumo zentlekele yaseChernobyl.

Kwenzeka ntoni eChernobyl

IChernobyl emva kwengozi

Le ntlekele yenyukliya yenzeke kufutshane nesixeko saseChernobyl kwindawo eyayisakuba yiUSSR. Esi sixeko sityale imali eninzi kumandla enyukliya emva kweMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi. Yayivela ngo-1977 xa oososayensi baseSoviet babephethe fakela izixhobo zenyukliya ezi-4 RBMK kumzi-mveliso wamandla enyukliya. Esi sityalo senyukliya simi kumda wangoku phakathi kweUkraine neBelarus.

Ingozi iqale ngoqeqesho lwesondlo esiqhelekileyo sesixhobo sombane samandla enyukliya. Abasebenzi babenombono wokusebenzisa ixesha ababekhuthele ngalo ukuze bakwazi ukuvavanya ukuba ngaba isixhobo sombane singaphola na kwimeko apho isityalo sishiywe singenalo naluphi na uhlobo lombane. Njengoko sisazi, imvelaphi yokuqhuma kwenyukliya yenzeka ngokwamandla ezinto zenyukliya ukupholisa amaqondo obushushu asezantsi ngaphandle kombane.

Nangona kunjalo, ngexesha lovavanyo lokupholisa, abasebenzi bophule imigaqo ethile yokhuseleko kwaye oku ngequbuliso kwandisa amandla ngaphakathi kwisityalo. Nangona benze iinzame zokuvala isixhobo sombane, kwabakho nolunye ukwanda kwamandla olwabangela ukuba kubekho uqhushululu ngaphakathi. Ekugqibeleni, isiseko se-reactor savezwa kwaye isixa esikhulu semathiriyeli enemisebe eqengqelekayo sagxothwa emoyeni.

Kwiinyanga ezimbalwa emva kokuba iReactor 4 eChernobyl yeNyukliya yaMandla aVutha amadangatye ayityhefu, igutyungelwe sisixa esikhulu sekhonkrithi kunye nentsimbi yokuqulatha yonke imathiriyeli enemitha eqhumayo ngaphakathi. Esi sakhiwo sakudala sangcwatywa ukunqanda ukwandiswa kwemitha. Kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, ngo-2016, yaqiniswa kunye nesinye isiqulatho esitsha ukuze namhlanje izinto ezinobungozi zingabonakali.

Kwaye yimitha eqhubeka esesibhakabhakeni amawaka eminyaka. Ngesi sizathu, kuye kubaluleke kakhulu ukukhusela isiseko se-reactor ukuze imitha ingasasebenzi.

Intlekele yenyukliya

Intlekele yenyukliya yaqala xa zonke izinto ezenzeka kumxokelelwane wazo zabangela uqhushumbo ngaphakathi kwisityalo samandla enyukliya. Abacimi-mlilo bazamile ukucima imililo kwaye ekugqibeleni, iihelikopta zaphosa isanti kunye nezinye izixhobo ukuzama ukucima amadangatye kwaye ziqulathe nongcoliseko. Abantu ababini babulawa ngexesha lokuqhuma kwaye inani elikhulu labasebenzi kunye nabacimi-mlilo bangeniswa esibhedlele. Nangona kunjalo, ingozi yokuwa kwe-radioactive kunye nomlilo wawukho. Akukho mntu wakhutshwa kwiindawo ezikufutshane, nkqu nakwisixeko esikufutshane sasePripiat. Esi sixeko sakhiwa ukuze sigcine bonke abasebenzi besityalo. Kwakusele iiyure ezingama-36 emva kwentlekele apho indawo yaqala ukukhutshwa.

Ukuxelwa kwengozi yenyukliya kwabonwa njengomngcipheko obalulekileyo kwezopolitiko, kodwa ke kwakusekude kakhulu kwaye kungenakufihlwa. Ukuwa sele kwasasaza imitha eSweden, apho abasemagunyeni kwesinye isityalo samandla enyukliya baqala ukuzibuza ukuba kwenzeka ntoni eUSSR. Emva kokukhanyela ingozi ekuqaleni, ISoviet yaphela yazisa ngo-Epreli 28.

Ejamelene nengozi yenyukliya ngolu hlobo, ilizwe liphela laqala ukuqonda ukuba ibingumboniso wesiganeko esiyimbali. Ukuya kuthi ga kwiipesenti ezingama-30 zayo yonke i-uranium yeetoni ezili-190 zeetriki eChernobyl zazisesibhakabhakeni. Kulapho ke Kwagqitywa ekubeni kukhutshwe abantu abangama-335.000 kwaye indawo yokukhutshelwa ngaphandle yomgama weekhilomitha ezingama-30 yamiselwa malunga ne-reactor.

Iziphumo zengozi yaseChernobyl

Ekuqaleni, njengoko kwenzekayo ingozi ibulale abantu abangama-28 kwalimala abangaphezulu kwekhulu. Oososayensi beKomiti yezeNzululwazi yeZizwe eziManyeneyo yoFundo lweZiphumo zeMisebe yeAtomic Radiation babhengeze ukuba ngaphezulu kwama-6.000 abantwana kunye nolutsha olufikisayo baba nomhlaza wedlala lengqula emva kokubhencwa kwimitha yelanga yenyukliya. Kwaye ukuba ingozi ibangele uthotho lwamasuntswana anike indawo entle. Nangona kunjalo, la masuntswana ayenomxholo ophezulu we-radioactivity, obangele ukuba abemi bePripiat babhencwe kwimitha enkulu yemitha ebangele ukwenziwa kwamathumba.

Iyonke malunga nabantu abangama-4.000 babhencwa kumanqanaba aphezulu emitha kwaye ngenxa yoko umhlaza onokubakho unxulunyaniswa nale radiation. Iziphumo zizonke zengozi, ukongeza iimpembelelo kwimpilo yengqondo nakwizizukulwana ezilandelayo, ziyaqhubeka zibaluleke kakhulu kwaye ziyaqhubeka ukuba yingxoxo yokufunda de kube namhla.

Okwangoku kukho iinzame zokuqulatha kunye nokubeka iliso kwimitha ekhoyo kwindawo yenyukliya. Intsalela yeli reactor ingaphakathi kwesakhiwo esikhulu sentsimbi esakhiwe ngasemva konyaka ka-2016. Ukubeka iliso, ukuthintela nokucoca kulindeleke ukuba kuqhubeke kude kube ngama-2065 ubuncinci.

Ukugcina bonke abasebenzi bezityalo zamandla enyukliya kwiminyaka ye-70, isixeko sasePripiat sakhiwa. Ukusukela ngoko, esi sixeko saba yidolophu yesiporho eshiyekileyo kwaye ngoku sisetyenziswa njengelabhoratri yokufunda iipateni ezinemitha yeathom.

Iimpembelelo zexesha elide kwintlekele yenyukliya

Intlekele yaseChernobyl

Kuhlala kuthethwa ngentlekele yenyukliya, kuyimfuneko ukuhlalutya iimpembelelo zexesha elide. Kukho ifuthe kwangoko ehlathini nakwizilwanyana eziyingqongileyo eziphandwayo. Emva kwengozi, indawo emalunga neekhilomitha ezili-10 yaphinde yabizwa ngokuba "lihlathi elibomvu". Kungenxa yokuba imithi emininzi yajika yabomvu ibomdaka kwaye yafa emva kokufumana amanqanaba aphezulu emitha evela kumoya ojikeleze umhlaba.

Okwangoku, senza yonke indawo yokukhutshelwa ilawulwe kukuthula okungaginyisi mathe, kodwa izele bubomi. Uninzi lwemithi luye lwaphinda lwaqhelana nobushushu kumanqanaba aphezulu emitha. Konke oku kungenxa yokungabikho kwemisebenzi yoluntu malunga nesityalo samandla enyukliya. Inani labantu bezinye iintlobo ezinjengeengqungquthela kunye nenkqubela phambili ziye zanda. Kuqikelelwa ukuba ngo-2015 bekukho iingcuka eziphindwe kasixhenxe kwindawo yokukhutshelwa ngaphandle koovimba abakufutshane, enkosi ngokungabikho kwabantu.

Njengoko ubona, kwanentlekele yenyukliya eyaziwayo njengeChernobyl isifundisa ukuba abantu ngabona ngxaki yokwenene kwindalo esingqongileyo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   UWilliam Goytia sitsho

    Kungokugqibela kuphela endikuqondayo ukuba injongo ye-covid19.