Amandla ahlaziyiweyo eSpain

Amandla ahlaziyiweyo eSpain

Amandla ahlaziyekayo eSpain anika, ekuhambeni kwexesha, amahla ndenyuka ekusetyenzisweni nakwimveliso. Okwangoku, amandla enyukliya, izityalo ezihlanganisiweyo zomjikelo, kwanalawo amalahle kunye nerhasi yendalo ekudala ikwazile ukuvelisa amandla amaninzi njengokuhlaziywa kunyaka ophelileyo. NgokweNethiwekhi yoMbane yaseSpain, imithombo yamandla ehlaziyekayo eveliswe ngo-2017 yavelisa iipesenti ezingama-33,7 kuwo onke amandla asetyenzisiweyo.

Kule posi uya kuba nakho ukwazi ipanorama yamandla ahlaziyekayo eSpain, ukusuka kwindlela asebenza ngayo kwezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi yonke into malunga nayo?

Amandla ahlaziyekayo eSpain

Ipaki yelanga

Ngaphandle kwento yokuba amandla ahlaziyekayo anike umdla kwiPeninsula yaseIberia, i-17,4% yamandla asetyenzisiweyo isekhona ngenxa yamandla ombane wamalahle. Inye kwiiyure ezintathu zekilowatt eziveliswe eSpain zivelise ngokuzimela nangokucocekileyo. Phakathi kwamandla asetyenzisiweyo asifumana ilanga, umoya, i-hydro kunye ne-biomass.

Ngelixa amanzi, ilanga kunye nomoya zisetyenziselwa ukuvelisa amandla kwinqanaba elikhulu, i-biomass isetyenziselwe ukufudumeza izakhiwo ebusika. Enkosi ngalo mthombo unokuphinda unikwe ukutya izitovu zepelethi.

Amandla aqhelekileyo kunye neendleko zawo eziphezulu

Icandelo leoyile

Zonke iiyure ze-kilowatt ziveliswa kwirhasi yendalo, amalahle okanye izityalo zamandla enyukliya. La mandla ayingowemveli kuba, umzekelo, malunga ne-50% ye-uranium ibalulekile eNamibia okanye eNiger. Ukusuka apho sifumana ipetroli yezixhobo zamandla enyukliya. Kwelinye icala, ukusuka eQatar okanye eAlgeria singenisa isiqingatha serhasi yendalo esiyisebenzisayo. Okokugqibela, ukusuka eLibya, eNigeria nakuMbindi Mpuma sikhupha isixa esikhulu seoyile.

Imvelaphi yangaphandle yamandla ithetha ukuba umvuzo awuyi eSpain, kodwa uhlala ungaphandle. Uqoqosho lwaseSpain luyasebenza ukuba imali iyangena kweli lizwe. Oko kukuthi, ukuba sithumela ngaphandle ngaphezu kokungenisa elizweni okanye sifumana abakhenkethi abaninzi abachitha imali yabo apha. Konke ukungenisa ngaphakathi kunexabiso: i-33 yezigidi zeerandi ezichithwe kwioyile, kwigesi nakwamalahle. Le mali ilahlekile kwingxowa yaseSpain kwaye iya kwamanye amazwe.

Ejamelene nale meko, iSpain ixhomekeke ngokupheleleyo kumaxabiso abekwe ngamanye amazwe ngerhasi yendalo okanye ioyile. Ukuxhomekeka kwamandla kungaphezulu komndilili waseYurophu. Ambalwa amazwe azimeleyo ngokupheleleyo kumandla, kodwa iSpain ixhomekeke kakhulu kumandla angaphandle. Sichanabeke kwiminqweno yezinye izizwe ezithengisela amandla kunye nakolo rhwebo "ubuzwilakhe".

Ingxaki yokuxhomekeka kwamandla iya isiba mandundu. Ngokwe-Cores bulletin yamva nje (Umbutho weeCandelo loGcino lweeMveliso zePetroleum, iSebe lezaMandla), phakathi kukaJanuwari no-Okthobha u-2017, ukungeniswa kweemveliso zamandla kukhule nge-18,0% apha. Ngaphandle koku, intsilelo yamandla inyuke nge-30,4%, efikelela kwizigidi ezili-17 zeerandi. Sisoloko sinesiphene ngakumbi kumandla, xa sinokubakho okuhle kwihlabathi elinokuhlaziywa.

Yenza ntoni iSpain ngamandla?

Ioyile kunye neefosili

Ngamandla owathengayo, ivelisa ukubanda kunye nobushushu kwiinkqubo zeshishini. Bakwasebenza kumakhaya anee-air-condition kunye neeofisi. Kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba ioyile isetyenziselwa ukondla yonke imoto yezithuthi ezijikelezayo (ngaphezulu kwezigidi ezingama-27 zezithuthi zomhlaba kunye nezomoya nezaselwandle). Isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa umbane. Kwimveliso yamandla besinentsalela kude kube phantse unyaka, xa ibhalansi phakathi kokuthunyelwa kunye nokungeniswa kwamanye amazwe yayilungile.

Emva kweminyaka elishumi elinesithathu yeebhalansi ezilungileyo, kunye neminyaka emihlanu ilandelelana kunye nokumiswa kwezinto ezinokuhlaziywa ezandleni zikarhulumente waseRajoy, ngo-2016 ukwehla kwamandla kwaqala eSpain. Ukuthambekela kokuya kusiba kubi kuqinisekisiwe ngo-2017, xa sasingenisa amandla angaphaya kwama-20% kunango-2016. Nangona iFrance nePortugal zikwimeko engeyiyo, le yokugqibela inomthetho wokuzisebenzisa kwimarike.

Renewables ithuba

Ifama yomoya eLleida

E-Spain ineyona milinganiselo iphakamileyo kuyo yonke iYurophu. Ukongeza, sinolona xinzelelo lukhulu kubakhenkethi kwimbali kwaye besihlala kwiinyanga zika-Agasti ngamaqondo obushushu angama-45 degrees. Ngaphandle koku, ukuxhomekeka kwethu kumandla kuyaqhubeka ukwanda ngakumbi nangakumbi. Sinezixhobo ezininzi eSpain kunye nefestile enkulu yamathuba. Isimo somoya esisetyenzisiweyo ngexesha leeyure eziphezulu sinokuxhaswa lilanga. Ilanga linokungaxoleli kwaye lidinise njengoko linika amandla. Kodwa khange kube njalo. Abathengisi bangaphandle baxhamle kwezi ncopho zamandla, ikakhulu ezo zerhasi yendalo.

Ngaphandle kweemeko ezinamandla esihlala kuzo yonke imihla eSpain, ipaki ehlaziyiweyo efakiweyo iye yathetha ukuba sinokuba ne-1 kwi-3 kilowatts yamandla acocekileyo. Oku kuyimpumelelo kuthathelwa ingqalelo iimeko ezomeleleyo esijamelana nazo. Akukho nto inye kwaye akukho nto ingaphantsi kwama-33,7% yamandla onke eveliswa yimithombo engangcolisiyo kunye nemithombo yemveli.

Umxube wamandla waseSpain

Kwelinye icala, izixhobo zenyukliya ezisixhenxe ezisasebenza zinoxanduva lokuvelisa i-22,6% yeekhilowathi. Oku kuthetha ukuba izinto ezivela elizweni lase Namibia zithathe inxenye yesibini yemveliso. Irhasi ivelise ngaphezulu okanye kancinci ngokufanayo, ukuba sidibanisa umjikelo odibeneyo, i-13,8%, kunye ne-11,5 yamanqaku okuzibandakanya. Uninzi lwezixhobo zokuzibandakanya eSpain zisebenza ngegesi. Amalahle avelise kuphela i-17,4% yeeyure zeekhilowathi.

Njengoko kunokubonwa kumxube wamandla waseSpain, ngaphandle kokuba izinto ezivuselelekayo ziye zayeka ukusukela oko urhulumente waseRajoy, babodlula abanye. Amandla ahlaziyekayo eSpain kufuneka akhokele ilizwe kutshintsho lwamandla okoko, kungekudala okanye kamva, amafutha eefossil aya kubiza kakhulu ngenxa yokuphela kwawo. Ndiyathemba ukuba oorhulumente bazakufumana ukusebenza ngayo. Kuyihlazo ukuba amandla amaninzi ayamoshwa, ngaphandle kokuba namandla amakhulu.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.