Lisebelisoa tsa conductive le insulating

lisebelisoa tse tsamaisang motlakase

ea lisebelisoa tse tsamaisang le tse sireletsang metsi li arotsoe ho ea ka boitšoaro ba tsona mabapi le motlakase. Ho na le tse khonang ho tsamaisa motlakase le tse ling tseo, ho fapana le hoo, li ke keng tsa khona ho etsa joalo. Lisebelisoa tsena li na le litšobotsi tse fapaneng 'me li sebelisoa likarolong tse fapaneng tsa indasteri le malapeng.

Sehloohong sena re tla u bolella ntho e 'ngoe le e' ngoe eo ue hlokang ho tseba ka thepa ea conductive le insulating le hore na e 'ngoe le e' ngoe ea tsona e etselitsoe eng.

Lisebelisoa tsa conductive le insulating

lisebelisoa tse tsamaisang le tse sireletsang metsi

Lisebelisoa li ka aroloa ka mekhahlelo e 'meli e pharaletseng: li-conductor le li-insulator. Ho tla ba ho nepahetseng haholoanyane ho li hlalosa e le li-conductors tse ntle le li-conductors tse mpe, ho itšetlehile ka hore na boitsebiso bo bong le bo bong bo thusa kapa bo sitisa ho khanna. Karohano ena e ama ebang ke mocheso oa mocheso (ke hore mocheso oa mocheso) kapa motlakase oa motlakase (ke hore phallo ea hona joale).

Hore na ntho e tsamaisa motlakase kapa che ho itšetlehile ka boiketlo boo lielektrone li ka fetang ho eona. Li-proton ha li sisinyehe hobane, leha li na le tjhaja ea motlakase, li tlamahana le liprothone tse ling le li-neutron tse khubung. Li-electrone tsa Valence li tšoana le linaleli tse pota-potileng li-exoplanet. Ba khahloa ke ho lekana ho lula sebakeng, empa Hase kamehla ho hlokang matla a mangata ho ba ntša sebakeng sa bona.

Litšepe li lahleheloa habonolo le ho fumana li-electrone, kahoo li laola lethathamo la li-conductor. Limolek'hule tsa lintho tse phelang hangata ke li-insulators, karolo e 'ngoe hobane li tšoaroa hammoho ke li-elektronike tse tloaelehileng (li-electrone tse tloaelehileng), empa hape le hobane litlamo tsa haedrojene li thusa ho tsitsisa limolek'hule tse ngata. Lisebelisoa tse ngata ha se li-conductor tse ntle kapa li-insulator tse ntle. Ha li tsamaise motlakase habonolo, empa ka matla a lekaneng, lielektrone lia tsamaea.

Lisebelisoa tse ling tsa insulating li fumaneha sebakeng se hloekileng, empa ba itšoara kapa ba itšoara ha ba e-na le likaroloana tse nyenyane tsa ntho e 'ngoe kapa haeba li na le litšila. Ka mohlala, li-ceramics tse ngata ke li-insulator tse babatsehang, empa haeba u li fetola, u ka fumana li-superconductors. Metsi a hloekileng ke insulator, empa metsi a litšila ha a tsamaise hantle, ha metsi a letsoai a nang le li-ion tse phaphametseng a sebetsa hantle.

Sesebelisuoa sa conductive ke eng?

lisebelisoa tse tsamaisang le tse sireletsang metsi

Li-conductors ke lisebelisoa tse lumellang lielektrone ho phalla ka bolokolohi pakeng tsa likaroloana. Lintho tse entsoeng ka thepa ea conductive li tla lumella ho fetisoa ha tefiso ho pholletsa le sebaka sohle sa ntho. Haeba tefiso e fetisetsoa nthong sebakeng se itseng, e ajoa ka potlako holim'a sebaka sohle sa ntho eo.

Kabo ea tefiso ke phello ea ho tsamaea ha li-electrone. Lisebelisoa tsa conductive li lumella lielektrone hore li tsamaisoe ho tloha karolong e 'ngoe ho ea ho e' ngoe hobane ntho e qosoang e tla lula e aba tefiso ea eona ho fihlela matla a nyonyehang ka kakaretso pakeng tsa li-electrone tse feteletseng a fokotseha. Ka tsela ena, haeba conductor e lefisitsoeng e kopana le ntho e 'ngoe, mokhanni a ka fetisetsa tefiso ea eona ho ntho eo.

Phetiso ea litefiso lipakeng tsa lintho e kanna ea etsahala haeba ntho ea bobeli e entsoe ka thepa ea conductive. Li-conductors li lumella phetiso ea tefiso ka motsamao oa mahala oa lielektrone.

Thepa ea semiconductor ke eng?

ditshepe

Har'a lisebelisoa tsa conductive re fumana lisebelisoa tse nang le ts'ebetso e ts'oanang empa hape e ka sebetsa e le li-insulators, le hoja sena se itšetlehile ka lintlha tse 'maloa. Lintlha tsena ke:

  • lebala la motlakase
  • matla a khoheli
  • khatello
  • mahlaseli a ketsahalo
  • mocheso oa tikoloho ea hau

Lisebelisoa tsa semiconductor tse sebelisoang ka ho fetisisa ke silicon, germanium mme ke morao tjena sebabole se sebelisitsoeng joalo ka thepa ea semiconductor.

Lintho tse bonahalang tsa superconducting ke eng?

Boitsebiso bona bo tsoteha hobane bo na le bokhoni ba tlhaho ba hore thepa e lokela ho tsamaisa motlakase, empa tlas'a maemo a nepahetseng, ntle le ho hanyetsa kapa ho lahleheloa ke matla.

Ka kakaretso, resistivity ea li-conductor tsa tšepe e fokotseha ka mocheso o fokolang. Ha mocheso o boima o fihla, ho hanyetsa ha superconductor ho theoha haholo, empa ho tiisa hore matla a ka hare a tsoela pele ho phalla, le hoja a se na matla. Superconductivity e entsoe.

E hlaha ka mefuta e mengata e fapaneng ea lisebelisoa, ho kenyelletsa le li-alloys tse bonolo tse kang tin kapa aluminium tse sa bonts'ang khanyetso ea motlakase, kahoo li thibela thepa ho kena sebakeng sa eona. E leng phello ea Meissner, e lumellang thepa hore e lelekoe, e lule e phaphametse.

Ntho e sireletsang ke eng

Ho fapana le li-conductor, li-insulator ke lisebelisoa tse thibelang ho phalla ha lielektrone ho tloha athomong ho ea ho athomo le ho tloha molek'hule ho ea ho molek'hule. Haeba mojaro o fetisetsoa ho motho ea ikemetseng sebakeng se itseng, mojaro o feteletseng o tla sala sebakeng sa pele sa mojaro. Likarolo tse sireletsang ha li lumelle phallo ea mahala ea li-elektronike, kahoo tefiso ha e fumanehe ka mokhoa o ts'oanang ka holim'a holim'a thepa e sireletsang.

Le hoja li-insulator ha li na thuso bakeng sa phetisetso ea litefiso, e bapala karolo ea bohlokoa litekong le lipontšong tsa electrostatic. Lintho tse tsamaisang hangata li behoa holim'a lintho tse sireletsang metsi. Tokisetso ena ea li-conductor tse ka holimo ho insulator e thibela ho fetisoa ha tefiso ho tloha nthong ea conductive ho ea ho eona, ho qoba likotsi tse kang lipotoloho tse khutšoanyane kapa electrocution. Tokisetso ena e re lumella ho laola ntho ea conductive ntle le ho e ama.

Kahoo re ka re thepa e sireletsang e sebetsa e le mokhanni oa mokhanni ka holim'a tafole ea lab e tsamaeang. Mohlala, haeba soda ea aluminium e sebelisoa ho kenya liteko, lekotikoti le lokela ho kenngoa ka holim'a kopi ea polasetiki. Khalase e sebetsa joalo ka insulator, e thibelang hore soda e se ke ea lutla.

Mehlala ea Lisebelisoa tse Ts'oarang le tse Insulating

Mehlala ea lisebelisoa tsa conductive e kenyelletsa tse latelang:

  • Plata
  • koporo
  • khauta
  • aluminium
  • hierro
  • tšepe
  • koporo
  • boronse
  • mercury
  • litšoantšo
  • metsi a leoatle
  • konkreite

Mehlala ea lisebelisoa tsa insulating e kenyelletsa tse latelang:

  • likhalase
  • rabara
  • petroleum
  • asphalt
  • khalase ea fiberglass
  • letsopa
  • letsopa
  • quartz
  • k'hothone (e omileng)
  • pampiri (e omileng)
  • patsi e omileng)
  • polasetiki
  • sebakeng seo
  • litaemane
  • metsi a hloekileng
  • eraser

Ho aroloa ha thepa ka lihlopha tsa li-conductor le li-insulators ke ntho e 'ngoe ea karohano ea maiketsetso. Ho loketse haholoanyane ho beha boitsebiso kae-kae ho latela tsoelo-pele.

E tlameha ho utloisisoa hore hase lisebelisoa tsohle tsa conductive tse nang le conductivity e tšoanang, 'me hase li-insulators tsohle tse hanyetsanang le ho tsamaea ha li-electrone. Conductivity e tšoana le ponaletso ea lisebelisoa tse ling ho khanya.: Lisebelisoa tse "fetang" habonolo li bitsoa "transparent", athe tse sa "fetang" habonolo li bitsoa "opaque". Leha ho le joalo, ha se lisebelisoa tsohle tse pepeneneng tse nang le conductivity e tšoanang ea optical. Hoa tšoana le ho li-conductor tsa motlakase, tse ling li betere ho feta tse ling.

Ba nang le li-conductivity tse phahameng, tse tsejoang e le li-superconductors, li behiloe ka lehlakoreng le leng 'me lisebelisoa tse tlaase tsa conductivity li behoa ka lehlakoreng le leng. Joalokaha u ka bona ka holimo, tšepe e tla behoa haufi le ho fetisisa conductive qetellong, ha a ntse a khalase e tla behoa pheletsong e 'ngoe ea ho tsoela pele. The conductivity ea tšepe e ka ba libilione tse libilione makhetlo a khalase.

Mocheso o boetse o ama conductivity. Ha mocheso o ntse o eketseha, liathomo le lielektrone li fumana matla. Li-insulator tse ling, tse kang likhalase, ha li na li-conductors tse fokolang ha ho bata, empa li ntse li le li-conductors tse ntle ha ho chesa. Litšepe tse ngata ke li-conductor tse betere.. Li lumella ho pholisa le li-conductor tse mpe ha ho chesa. Li-conductor tse ling tse ntle li fumanoe ho li-superconductors ka mocheso o tlase haholo.

Ke tšepa hore ka boitsebiso bona u ka ithuta ho eketsehileng ka thepa conductive le insulating.


Litaba tsa sengoloa sena li latela melao-motheo ea rona ea melao ea boitšoaro ea bongoli. Ho tlaleha phoso tlanya mona.

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  1. E ikarabella bakeng sa data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Morero oa data: Laola SPAM, tsamaiso ea maikutlo.
  3. Molao: Tumello ea hau
  4. Puisano ea data: Lintlha li ke ke tsa tsebisoa batho ba boraro ntle le ka tlamo ea molao.
  5. Polokelo ea data: Database e hapiloeng ke Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Litokelo: Nako efe kapa efe o ka fokotsa, oa hlaphoheloa mme oa hlakola tlhaiso-leseling ea hau.