Asbestos: tsohle tseo o hlokang ho li tseba

asbestos

El asbestos Ke liminerale tse nang le fiber tse tsejoang ho tloha mehleng ea khale ebile li sebelisoa haholo indastering ka lebaka la thepa ea eona ea 'mele le ea lik'hemik'hale tse etsang hore e be e loketseng morero ona. Mefuta ea asbestos e arotsoe ka lihlopha tsa noha le li-amphibole tse ipapisitseng le tlhophiso e kobehileng kapa e otlolohileng ea likhoele tsa tsona.

Sehloohong sena re tla u bolella ntho e 'ngoe le e' ngoe eo ue hlokang ho tseba ka asbestos, litšobotsi tsa eona le kotsi.

Litšobotsi tse ka sehloohong

likhoele tse chefo

Mabapi le thepa ea eona, ho hanyetsa mocheso, abrasion, alkalis le acids le ho feto-fetoha ha eona ho etsa hore e be thepa e loketseng bakeng sa ho sebelisoa e le thepa e sireletsang indastering ea masela le libakeng tse ling tse ngata. Kotsi ea pathogenic ea asbestos e tsejoa ka lilemo tse ngata hobane e lula e le liseleng tsa matšoafo nako e telele, 'me liphuputso li bontšitse hore e fetola ts'ebetsong ea mucociliary, ts'ebetso ea macrophage, le ho lokolloa ha mokena-lipakeng oa ho ruruha, hammoho le ho eketseha ha ho kopantsoe le mosi oa koae. E bile e amahanngoa le likokoana-hloko tse itseng ha ho tluoa tabeng ea bokhoni ba eona ba kankere.

Asbestos ke diminerale e 'nileng ea tsejoa ho tloha mehleng ea khale. Litšupiso tse ngata tsa histori li paka sena.. E ile ea fumanoa libōpi tsa letsopa tsa Finland tsa khale lilemong tse 4.500 XNUMX; ho boetse ho boleloa hore lebone la khauta la lebone la molimotsana Athena lekholong la boXNUMX la lilemo BC. C. e entsoe ka asbestos. Ka lebaka la thepa ea asbestos, e sebelisoa haholo likarolong tsohle tsa bophelo, tšebeliso ea eona e fihlile maemong a phahameng lilemong tse mashome a morao tjena, 'me hona joale ho tsejoa likopo tse fetang likete tse tharo, leha ho le joalo, ntle le ts'ebeliso ea eona e kholo, e tlameha ho eketseha haholo. kotsi ea ho baka mafu ka kotloloho kapa ka mokhoa o sa tobang, haholo-holo ka nako e telele, kaha e na le nako ea ho incubation e fetang lilemo tse mashome a mabeli.

Sehlopha sa asbestos

asbestos

Lentsoe asbestos (e sa cheng, e sa senyeheng) e bolela sehlopha sa liminerale tse nang le fiber tse nang le metsoako e fapaneng ea lik'hemik'hale le litlhophiso. Leha ho le joalo, ho sa tsotellehe ho hlalosoa e le e sa cheng le e ke keng ea senyeha, tsohle asbestos e bola ka mocheso o ka holimo ho likhato tse 800-1000. Leha tšebeliso ea eona e qalile khale, e ile ea qala ho sebelisoa haholo indastering ho tloha lekholong la XNUMXth ho fihlela ts'ebeliso ea eona e fokotsehile lilemong tse mashome tsa morao tjena ka mor'a hore ho thehoe matla a eona a matla a pathogenicity.

Li arotsoe ho latela tlhophiso ea tsona:

  • sehlopha sa noha (likhoele tse kobehileng): E ka sehloohong, chrysotile kapa asbestos e tšoeu. E fumaneha: Canada, Russia, lirephabliki tsa mehleng tsa Soviet, Zimbabwe le Italy.
  • sehlopha sa amphibole (likhoele tse otlolohileng): asbestos ea amosite kapa e sootho, crocidolite kapa asbestos e putsoa, ​​​​amphibole kapa asbestos e mosehla, tremolite le actinite. Li fumaneha Afrika Boroa le Australia.
  • Mefuta ea Asbestiform: sepiolite, attapulgite, paligorskite, erionite (Turkey) le talc e silafalitsoeng ke asbestos ka holim'a bethe.
  • Asbestos e sebelisoang haholo indastering ke chrysotile (95% ea tlhahiso), e lateloe ke crocidolite le amosite.

Lintho tsa asbestos

asbestos hodima marulelo

Asbestos ke li-silicate tsa tšepe, sodium, magnesium le calcium tse nang le sebopeho sa kristale le li hlophisitsoe ka likhoele tse ntle haholo tse kopanang ho etsa likhoele (likhoele: tse kholo ho feta li-micron tse 5 ka bolelele, bophara ba li-micron tse ka tlase ho 3 le tse kholo ho feta li-microns tse 3 ka bolelele/bophara).

Li na le tekano e lekanyelitsoeng e ka bang 2,5 le ntlha e qhibilihang e fetang 1.000 ºC. Ka lebaka la sebopeho sa tsona sa lik'hemik'hale, li na le liminerale tse thibelang mocheso (li senyeha ka mocheso o ka holimo ho 800 ºC).

Li hanyetsana le alkalis (chrysotile) le li-acids (haholo-holo amosite le crocidolite), ke ka lebaka leo tse qetellang li sebelisoang e le li-insulators indastering. Likhoele tsa Chrysotile lia tenyetseha (e sebelisoa indastering ea masela); likhoele tsa amphibole li brittle ho feta. Ha li na lelakabe ebile ha li qhibilihe, li na le khanyetso e kholo ea motlakase le ho apara, kahoo li nkoa e le tse sa senyeheng.

Kotsi

Ha ho hema, likhoele tsa asbestos li feta ka har'a pampiri ea ho hema, ha tse fetang tsamaisong ea mucociliary li kena ka alveoli, moo li ka phagocytosed ke macrophages, li felisitsoe ke lijana tsa lymphatic, kapa li na le liphello tsa fibrotic kapa carcinogenic.

Mefuta e fapaneng ea likhoele tsa asbestos e na le litšobotsi tse fapaneng tsa 'mele le tsa lik'hemik'hale tse khethollang kotsi ea pathogenicity. Chefo ea likhoele tsa asbestos e amana le sebopeho sa eona sa fiber, kaha asbestos ea fatše ha e bake maloetse.

Ka lebaka la kotsi ea ho ba le lefu lena, ka bobeli ka bobeli matla le nako ea ho pepeseha li bohlokoa. Ho na le litekanyetso tsa basebetsi bakeng sa khatello ea fiber lichifing tsa mosebetsi le tikolohong.

Bokhoni ba likhoele tsa asbestos ho hlahisa pathology bo bonahala bo ipapisitse le bophara ba bona ba aerodynamic, bolelele le nako ea ho lula ka har'a lesela. Likhoele tse kholoanyane tsa bophara li kenngoa ka nko, trachea le bronchi e kholo 'me li felisoa ke tsamaiso ea mucociliary. Tse nang le bophara bo fokolang, tse tsoelang pele, li fihla ho bronchioles ea ho hema.

lithuto tsa asbestos

Lithutong tsa liphoofolo, likhoele tse khutšoane (tse ka tlase ho li-microns tse 5) li fumanoe ho ha di na matla a biology ho feta ditlhale tse telele. Likhoele tse telele tse fihlang alveoli ho lumeloa hore li na le pathogenic haholoanyane ka lebaka la ho hlaka ha tsona ho tlase. Ho 'nile ha bontšoa hore, ntle le ho ba ka lebaka la nako e telele ea ho lula litseleng tsena, thepa ea holim'a likhoele tsena e boetse e ama metabolism ea lisele.

Ka lebaka la ho hlophisoa ha tsona, likhoele tse telele, tse koetsoeng tsa chrysotile li bolokiloe habonolo ho proximal bronchi ke tsamaiso ea mucociliary, ha likhoele tse khutšoanyane, tse thata tsa amphibole li fihla libakeng tsa bronchioloalveolar.

Bangoli ba 'maloa ba sirelelitse tšusumetso ea mabaka a itšetlehileng ka moeti ka kotsi ea pathogenic ea likhoele tsa asbestos. Ho tsena, mosebetsi o lekaneng oa mucociliary ho tlosa likhoele tse huloang le boemo ba 'mele oa ho itšireletsa mafung oa moeti, kaha karabelo ea ho ruruha ho likhoele tsa asbestos e bonahala e le matla ho liphoofolo tse nang le immunocompromised ho feta ho laola.

Liphuputso tse 'maloa tsa liphoofolo le batho li bontšitse hore macrophages e entsoeng ka asbestos e hlahisa li-cytokine tsa proinflammatory le profibrotic, tse kang fibroblast growth factor, IL-1b, IL-6 le TnF-a, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Neutrophil chemotaxis, fibronectin, PD , eIGF-1, le baemeli ba ho ruruha ba kang leukotriene B4 le prostaglandin E2 ba phetha karolo ea bohlokoa e le baemeli ba lefu lena.

Lilemong tsa morao tjena, ho entsoe liphuputso tse joalo bontša kotsi e eketsehileng ea kankere (kankere ea matšoafo) e amanang le ho pepesehela likhoele tsa asbestos ho batho ba tsubang. Tsamaiso ea 'mele ea ho itšireletsa mafung ea mosebeletsi e phetha karolo ea bohlokoa. Rheumatoid factor le antinuclear antibodies li fumanoe ho 25-30% ea basebetsi ba pepesehetseng asbestos.

Ke tšepa hore ka boitsebiso bona u ka ithuta ho eketsehileng ka asbestos, litšobotsi tsa eona le kotsi.


Litaba tsa sengoloa sena li latela melao-motheo ea rona ea melao ea boitšoaro ea bongoli. Ho tlaleha phoso tlanya mona.

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  1. E ikarabella bakeng sa data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Morero oa data: Laola SPAM, tsamaiso ea maikutlo.
  3. Molao: Tumello ea hau
  4. Puisano ea data: Lintlha li ke ke tsa tsebisoa batho ba boraro ntle le ka tlamo ea molao.
  5. Polokelo ea data: Database e hapiloeng ke Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Litokelo: Nako efe kapa efe o ka fokotsa, oa hlaphoheloa mme oa hlakola tlhaiso-leseling ea hau.