Miti yepasi rose yemagetsi emagetsi

Hydropower kubva kumagetsi emagetsi ari iyo yekutanga inogadziriswa sosi pasi. Parizvino iyo yakaiswa simba inodarika chiuru GW uye kugadzirwa muna 2014 kwakasvika 1.437 TWh, iyo yaisanganisira 14% yenyika inogadzira magetsi zvinoenderana nedata kubva kuInternational Energy Agency (IEA).

Uyezve, maererano nezvakafungidzirwa nesangano rimwe chetero, magetsi emagetsi acharamba achikura pamwero wakakura kudzamara achipeta simba rawo razvino. inodarika 2.000 2050 GW yemagetsi akaiswa muna XNUMX.

Simba remagetsi

Hydropower ine mikana yakawanda pamusoro pemamwe magetsi emagetsi, kusanganisira yakanyanya kuvimbika, teknolojia yakaratidza uye kugona kwakanyanya, yakaderera mashandiro uye mari yekuchengetedza.

Hydropower ndiyo sosi huru inovandudzwa, sezvo ichipeta katatu yemhepo, iyo, iine 350 GW, ndiyo sosi yechipiri Mipiro yeiyi tekinoroji mumakore achangopfuura yakagadzira magetsi akawanda kupfuura mamwe ese simba rinodzorerwa pamwechete. Uye kugona kwekuvandudza kweiyi tekinoroji kwakakura, kunyanya mu Africa, Asia neLatin America. Iyo IEA nzira yekumigwagwa inofungidzira kuti yepasirese yakaisirwa hunyanzvi huchawedzera zvakapetwa kusvika kungangoita 2.000 GW na2050, ine yepasirese magetsi kugadzirwa inodarika 7.000 TWh.

Kukura kwechizvarwa chemagetsi kunobva zvakanyanya mapurojekiti makuru mune dzichiri kusimukira uye dzichiri kusimukira hupfumi. Mune idzi nyika, makuru nemadiki emagetsi emagetsi eprojekti anogona kusimudzira kuwanikwa kwemagetsi emagetsi masevhisi, uye kudzikisira hurombo munzvimbo zhinji dzepasi, uko magetsi nemvura yekunwa zvisina kusvika.

Hydroelectric energy, inowanikwa kuburikidza nekushandisa kinetic simba uye kugona kwemafungu nemvura, ndiyo imwe yeiyo ekare anovandudzwa masosi uye inoshandiswa nenyika kuwana simba. China nhasi uno ndiyo inogadzira magetsi emagetsi epasi rese, ichiteverwa neBrazil, Canada, United States neRussia, nyika dzine michina yemagetsi yepasi rose.

Tevere isu tichaenda kuona yepamusoro 5 yemagetsi emagetsi

Hydroelectric magetsi chiteshi cheMatatu Gorges

Izvi zvinomera zvemagetsi zvine simba rakaisirwa 22.500 MW. Iri muYichang, mudunhu reHubei, uye ndiyo hombe pasi rose. Iyo yakajairwa dura remagetsi emagetsi anoshandisa mvura kubva muRwizi rweYangtze.

Kuvakwa kweprojekiti kwaida kudyara kwemamiriyoni gumi nemasere emamiriyoni. Iyi mega kuvaka yakatanga muna 18.000 uye yakapera muna 1993. Dhamu rine 181 metres kumusoro uye 2.335 metres pakureba, yakaitwa sechikamu cheTatu Gorges chirongwa, chakabatanidzwa kune yemagetsi magetsi chiteshi chinoumbwa ne32 turbines e700 MW imwe neimwe, uye maviri anogadzira mayuniti e50 MW. Parizvino, gadziriro yemagetsi yegore negore yangoisa rekodhi yepasi rose muna 2014 ine 98,8 TWh, ichiigonesa kupa magetsi kumatunhu mapfumbamwe nemaguta maviri, kusanganisira Shanghai.

Itaipu hydroelectric chirimwa

Miti yemagetsi yeItaipu, ine simba rakaisirwa 14.000 MW, ndiyo yechipiri pakukura pasirese. Nzvimbo iyi iri parwizi rweParaná, pamuganhu pakati peBrazil neParaguay. Iko kudyara kwakaitwa mukuvakwa kweiyo chirimwa yaive 15.000 mamirioni euros. Iwo mabasa akatanga muna 1975 uye akapedzwa muna 1982. Mainjiniya emubatanidzwa we IECO yakavakirwa muUnited States uye ELC Electroconsult yakavakirwa muItari, yakaita kuvaka, kutanga kugadzirwa kwesimba kubva kumuti muna Chivabvu 1984.

Iyo Itaipu hydroelectric chirimwa inopa kutenderedza 17,3% yesimba rekushandisa muBrazil uye 72,5% yesimba rinoshandiswa muParaguay. Kunyanya, inoumbwa nemakumi maviri ekugadzira mayuniti anokwana 20 MW imwe neimwe.

Xiluodu hydroelectric magetsi chiteshi

magetsi emagetsi

Ichi chiteshi chemagetsi chemagetsi chiri munzira yeRwizi Jinsha, rwizi rweYangtze rwizi mune yayo yepamusoro kosi, iri pakati penzvimbo yeSichuan, ndiyo chechipiri pakukura magetsi muChina uye yechitatu pakukura pasirese . Unyanzvi hwakagadzwa hwemuti hwasvika 13.860 MW pakupera kwa2014 pakagadzwa ma turbines maviri ekupedzisira. Iyo projekiti yakagadzirwa ne Vatatu Gorges Project Corporation uye inotarisirwa kuburitsa 64 TWh yemagetsi pagore painenge ichishanda zvizere.

Iyo purojekiti yaida mari ye 5.500 mamiriyoni emamiriyoni uye kuvaka kwakatanga muna 2005, kutanga ma turbine ekutanga muna Chikunguru 2013. Chirimwa chine dombo rakakombama arch dhamu 285,5 metres kumusoro uye 700 metres paupamhi, ichigadzira dura rine simba rekuchengetedza mamirioni emamirioni e12.670. Iyo michina yezvivakwa, inopihwa neVoith mainjiniya, inoumbwa ne18 Francis turbine jenareta inokwana 770 MW imwe neimwe uye jenareta-inotonhorera nemhepo ine 855,6 MVA kuburitsa.

Guri magetsi emagetsi.

Iyo Guri chirimwa, inozivikanwawo seSimón Bolívar hydroelectric chirimwa, yakamisikidzwa seimwe yeakakura kwazvo pasirese, iine yakaiswa chinzvimbo che10.235 XNUMX MW. Zvivakwa izvi zviri parwizi rweCaroní, ruri kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumabvazuva kweVenezuela.

Kuvakwa kweprojekti kwakatanga muna 1963, kuchiitwa muzvikamu zviviri, chekutanga chakapedzwa muna 1978 uye chechipiri muna 1986. Chirimwa chine zvikamu makumi maviri zvinogadzira masimba akasiyana pakati pe20 MW ne130 MW. Iyo kambani Alstom yakasarudzwa kuburikidza nemakondirakiti maviri muna 2007 na2009 ekugadziridza mana 400 MW uye mashanu e630 MW mayuniti, uye Andritz akagamuchirawo kondirakiti yekupa mazana mashanu emakumi manomwe nemakumi manomwe emagetsi maFrancis muna 770. Mushure mekugadziriswa mumidziyo yekugadzira, chirimwa chakawana magetsi kugovera zvinopfuura 2007 GW / h.

Tucuruí hydroelectric chirimwa

Iri dhamu riri munzvimbo yepazasi yerwizi rweTocantins, muTucuruí, rwenyika yePará muBrazil, yakamisikidzwa sechirimwa chechishanu chikuru chemagetsi epasi rese iine 8.370 MW. Iyo kuvaka purojekiti, iyo yaida kudyara kwe4.000 mamirioni euros, yakatangwa mu1975 uye chikamu chekutanga chakazadzikiswa mu1984, chine dhiri regiravhiti rekongiri 78 metres kumusoro uye 12.500 metres kureba, gumi nemaviri anogadzira mayuniti anokwana 12MW imwe neimwe uye maviri. ebetsero mauniti e330 MW.

Chikamu chechipiri chakawedzera gwenya nyowani nyowani rakatangwa muna 1998 ndokuzadzikiswa mukupera kwa2010, umo kuiswa kwezvizvarwa gumi nemana zvinokwana 11 MW imwe neimwe yakaitwa. Mainjiniya emubatanidzwa akaumbwa na Alstom, GE Hydro, Inepar-Fem uye Odebrecht yakapa iyo

zvishandiso zvechikamu ichi. Parizvino, chirimwa chinopa magetsi kuguta reBelém nenzvimbo dzakatenderedza.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako