zvikamu zvesero

zvikamu zvese zvesero Isu tinoziva kuti sero ndiyo yekutanga inoshanda chikamu chese matissue emhuka nezvirimwa. Muchiitiko ichi, mhuka dzinoonekwa sezvipenyu zvakawanda, saka dzine zvinopfuura sero rimwe. Rudzi rwemasero rwaanowanzo narwo ieukaryotic cell uye rinoonekwa nekuve nenyucleus yechokwadi uye akasiyana akasarudzika organelles. Zvisinei, pane zvakasiyana-siyana zvikamu zvechitokisi uye chimwe nechimwe chazvo chine basa rakasiyana.

Muchinyorwa chino tichakuudza zvese zvaunoda kuziva nezvezvikamu zvakasiyana zvesero uye ndeupi musiyano mukuru pakati pesero remhuka nesero rezvirimwa.

zvikamu zvesero

zvikamu zvesero remhuka

Core

Iyo organelle yakasarudzika mukugadzirisa uye kubata kweserura ruzivo. Eukaryotic masero anowanzo ane nucleus imwe chete, asi pane zvisizvo apo tinogona kuwana nuclei dzakawanda. Chimiro cheiyi organelle chinosiyana zvichienderana nesero riri mukati, asi rinowanzotenderera. Iyo genetic zvinhu inochengetwa mairi muchimiro cheDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), iyo inobata kurongedza zviitiko zvesero: kubva pakukura kusvika pakubereka. Kune zvakare chimiro chinoonekwa mukati meiyo nucleus inonzi nucleolus, iyo inoumbwa nekusangana kwechromatin neprotein. Masero eMammalian ane 1 kusvika ku5 nucleoli.

plasma membrane uye cytoplasm

cytoplasm

Iyo plasma membrane ndiyo chimiro chakakomberedza sero uye chiripo mumasero mapenyu ese. Iyo inotarisira kuvhara izvi zviri mukati uye kudzivirira kubva kune yekunze nharaunda, izvi hazvirevi kuti i membrane yekuisa chisimbiso sezvo iine pores uye zvimwe zvimiro umo mamwe mamorekuru anofanira kupfuura kuti aite mukati mesero remhuka.

Iyo cytoplasm yemasero emhuka ndiyo nzvimbo iri pakati pe cytoplasmic membrane uye nucleus, iyo inotenderedza organelles ese. Inoumbwa ne70% yemvura uye yasara musanganiswa wemapuroteni, lipids, makabhohaidhiretsi uye mineral salt. Iyi svikiro yakakosha pakuvandudzwa kwe cell viability.

Endoplasmic reticulum uye Golgi apparatus

Endoplasmic reticulum is organelle iri muchimiro chemasaga akapfava uye tubules akaturikidzana pamusoro peumwe neumwe, achigovana nzvimbo imwechete yemukati. Iyo reticulum yakarongwa kuita matunhu akati wandei: iyo rough endoplasmic reticulum, ine membrane yakatsetseka uye inobatanidzwa ribosomes, uye yakatsetseka endoplasmic reticulum, yakawedzera kusarongeka pakuonekwa uye isina ribosomes anobatanidzwa.

Iyo seti yetangi-senge membranes inotarisira kugovera uye kuendesa zvigadzirwa zvemakemikari kubva muchitokisi, ndiko kuti, ndiyo nzvimbo yepakati peserura secretion. Yakaumbwa seGolgi yakaoma kana midziyo yemuchero sero uye ine zvikamu zvitatu: membrane sac, tubules iyo zvinhu zvinotakurwa mukati nekubuda musero, uye pakupedzisira vacuole.

Centrosome, cilia uye flagella

Iyo centrosome hunhu hwemasero emhuka uye ine mhango cylindrical chimiro chinoumbwa nemacentrioles maviri. yakarongedzwa perpendicular kune mumwe nemumwe. Kuumbwa kweiyi organelle inoumbwa neprotein tubules, iyo ine basa rakakosha muchikamu chesero sezvo inoronga cytoskeleton uye kugadzira spindle panguva ye mitosis. Inogonawo kugadzira cilia kana flagella.

Iyo cilia uye flagella yemasero emhuka ndeye appendages inoumbwa ne microtubules inopa fluidity kune sero. Ivo varipo mune unicellular organisms uye vane basa rekufamba kwavo, nepo mune mamwe masero ivo vanoshandiswa kubvisa zvakatipoteredza kana zvekunzwa mabasa. Kuwanda, cilia yakawanda kupfuura flagella.

mitochondria uye cytoskeleton

Mitochondria ndiwo organelles mumasero emhuka uko zvinovaka muviri zvinosvika uye dzinoshandurwa kuva simba mumuitiro unonzi kufema. Iwo akareba muchimiro uye ane maviri membranes: yemukati membrane yakapetwa kuita cristae uye yakatsetseka yekunze membrane. Huwandu hwemitochondria huripo musero rega rega zvinoenderana nebasa ravo (somuenzaniso, mumaseru emhasuru pachava nenhamba huru yemitochondria).

Kupedzisa rondedzero yezvikamu zvikuru zvemasero emhuka, tinoreva cytoskeleton. Inoumbwa neseti yefilaments iripo mu cytoplasm uye, kunze kwebasa rayo rekugadzira masero, inewo basa rekutsigira organelles.

Musiyano uripo pakati pemhuka uye chirimwa masero

Musiyano uripo pakati pemhuka uye chirimwa masero

Pane misiyano mikuru muzvikamu zvezvose mhuka nesero rechirimwa. Ngationei kuti misiyano mikuru ndeipi:

  • Dyara masero Iine sero wall kunze kweplasma membrane iyo mhuka isina. Zvinoita sokunge kuti ijira rechipiri rinoifukidza zviri nani. Rusvingo urwu runoupa kuomarara kukuru uye kudzivirira kukuru. Rusvingo urwu runoumbwa ne cellulose, lignin uye zvimwe zvikamu. Zvimwe zvezvikamu zvemadziro emadziro zvine mamwe maapplication mune zvekutengesa uye maindasitiri marongero.
  • Kusiyana nesero remhuka, iro sero rechirimwa rine machloroplast mukati. Chloroplast ndeaavo vane pigments dzakadai seklorophyll kana carotene izvo zvinobvumidza zvirimwa kuita photosynthesize.
  • Masero emiti anokwanisa kugadzira ega chikafu nekuda kwezvimwe zvinhu zvisingaite. Vanoita izvi kuburikidza neicho chiitiko chephotosynthesis. Rudzi urwu rwechikafu runonzi autotrophic.
  • Masero emhuka, kune rumwe rutivi, haana mukana wekugadzira chikafu chavo kubva kuzvinhu zvisina kujairika. Naizvozvo, zvinovaka muviri ndeye heterotrophic. Mhuka dzinofanirwa kuisa chikafu chehupenyu semimwe mhuka kana zvirimwa zvacho.
  • Masero emiti anobvumira kushandura kemikari simba kuita simba kuita solar kana chiedza simba nekuda kwemaitiro ephotosynthesis.
  • Mune maseru emhuka, simba rinopihwa nemitochondria.
  • Iyo cytoplasm yechirimwa cell inogarwa nehombe vacuoles mu90% yenzvimbo. Dzimwe nguva pane vacuole huru imwe chete. Iwo vacuoles anoshanda kuchengetedza zvakasiyana zvigadzirwa zvinotanga panguva yemetabolism. Mukuwedzera, inobvisa zvakasiyana-siyana tsvina inoitika mune imwechete metabolic reactions. Masero emhuka ane vacuoles asi madiki uye haatore nzvimbo yakawanda.
  • Mumasero emhuka tinowana organelle iyo inonzi centrosome. Ndiyo inotarisira kupatsanura makromosomes kuti aumbe masero emwanasikana, nepo mumasero ezvirimwa hamuna organelle yakadaro.
  • Masero ekudyara ane chimiro cheprismatic, nepo maseru emhuka aine maumbirwo akasiyana.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezvezvikamu zvesero uye maitiro ayo.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Iva wekutanga kutaura

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

*

*

  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

bool (chokwadi)