Chii chinonzi nyukliya fission

nyukireya fission simulation

Chokwadi unoziva kuti imwe yenzira dzekugadzira simba nemagetsi inoitwa kuburikidza nekushandisa simba renyukireya. Asi unogona kusaziva kuti zvinoshanda sei chaizvo. Pane maitirwo maviri esimba renyukireya: nyukireya fission uye nyukireya fusion.

Iwe unoda kuziva kuti chii nyukireya fission uye zvese zvine hukama nazvo?

Nyukliya fision

nyukireya fission yeuranium 235

Nyukireya fission ikemikari inoitwa mukati umo huremu hunorema hunoputirwa neutron. Kana izvi zvikaitika, inova nyonganyonga isina kugadzikana uye inoora kuita maviri nuclei, ane saizi dzakaenzana nenzira imwechete yehukuru. Mukuita uku huwandu hwesimba hunoburitswa uye neutron dzinoverengeka dzinoburitswa.

Kana ma neutron akaburitswa nekuparadzaniswa kwenukosi, ivo vanokwanisa kukonzera mamwe mafidhi nekudyidzana nedzimwe nuclei dziri padyo. Kamwe iyo neutron ichikonzera kumwe kufefitera, iyo neutron iyo ichazoburitswa kubva kwavari ichagadzira yakatowanda fissions. Saka senge hukuru hwesimba hunogadzirwa. Izvi zvinoitika muchikamu chiduku chechipiri uye inozivikanwa seketani yekuita. Iyo nuclei iyo yakabatana inoburitsa simba rakapetwa kane miriyoni pane iro rakawanikwa nekupisa chidimbu chemarasha kana kuputika dombo redhayamiti yemasero akafanana. Nechikonzero ichi, simba renyukireya isimba rine simba kwazvo uye rinoshandiswa kune zvakanyanya simba zvinodiwa.

Kuburitswa kwesimba kunoitika nekukurumidza kupfuura mukemikari inoitika.

Kana nyuturoni fission ikaitika uye imwe chete neutron inosunungurwa ichikonzera fission inotevera, huwandu hwefission dzinoitika pasekondi hunogara uye maitiro anogona kudzorwa zvakanaka. Iyi ndiyo nheyo yavanoshanda nayo zvombo zvenyukireya.

Musiyano uripo pakati pefusion uye fission

nyukireya fusion

Ose ari maitikiro enyukireya anoburitsa simba riri mukakiti reatomu. Asi pane misiyano mikuru pakati pezviviri. Nyukireya fission, sekutaurwa kwayakaitwa, iko kupatsanurwa kwenzvimbo inorema kuita zvidiki, kubudikidza nekurovera nema neutron. Panyaya yekusanganiswa kwenyukireya, zvinopesana. Zviri iyo yakareruka yepakati mubatanidzwa kugadzira hombe uye inorema imwe.

Semuenzaniso, mune nyukireya fission, uranium 235 (ndiyo chete isotopu inogona kupinda mukukanganiswa nenyukireya uye inowanikwa mune zvakasikwa) inosangana ne neutron kuti igadzire atomu rakagadzikana rinotsemuka nekukurumidza uyen barium 144 uye krypton 89, pamwe neutron nhatu. Ichi ndicho chimwe chezviitiko zvinogoneka zvinoitika apo uranium inosangana ne neutron.

Nechiitiko ichi, magetsi enyukireya ayo aripo izvozvi uye anoshandiswa kugadzirwa kwesimba remagetsi chiito.

Kuti fusion yenyukireya iitike, zvinodikanwa kuti maviri akareruka nuclei abatane kuti aumbe imwe inorema. Mukuita uku huwandu hwesimba hunoburitswa. Semuenzaniso, muZuva nyukireya fusion michina iri kuenderera mberi ichiitika umo maatomu ane mashoma mashoma ari kubatana kuita akaremerwa. Iwo maviri akareruka nuclei anofanirwa kubhadhariswa zvakanaka uye oswedera padhuze nepadhuze, achikunda masimba emagetsi ekudzvinyirira aripo. Izvi zvinoda huwandu hwakawanda hwekupisa uye kumanikidza. Panyika yedu, sezvo pasina kumanikidza kuripo muZuva, simba rinodiwa iro rinodiwa kuti nuclei iite uye kukunda aya anosemesa masimba. zvinoitwa kuburikidza nechidimbu chinowedzera simba.

Imwe yeanowanzoitika nyukireya fusion reaction ndiyo iyo inosanganisira kusanganiswa kweesotopu maviri ehydrogen, deuterium uye tritium, kugadzira helium atomu pamwe neutron. Kana izvi zvikaitika, muZuva pane kumanikidza kwakanyanya uko maatomu ehydrogen anoiswa uye anoda tembiricha yemamirioni gumi nemashanu emaCelsius kuti asanganise. Sekondi yega yega Mamirioni mazana matanhatu ematani ehydrogen fuse yekuumba helium.

Iye zvino hapana ma reactor anoshanda ne nyukireya fusion, sezvo zvakaomesesa kudzokorora aya mamiriro. Icho chiri kunyanya kuonekwa ndeyekuyedza nyukireya fusion reactor inonzi ITER iri kuvakwa muFrance uye iyo inoedza kuona kana iyi gadziriso yesimba yekugadzira inoshanda mune zvehunyanzvi uye nehupfumi, ichiita nyukireya fusion kuburikidza nemagineti kuvharirwa.

Kukosha kukuru

yenyukireya fusion scheme

Iyo yakakosha misa ndeye hushoma hushoma hwe fissile zvinhu izvo zvinodikanwa kuitira kuti nyukireya cheni yekuita igone kuchengetedzwa uye simba rinogona kugadzirwa nenzira inogara iripo.

Kunyangwe mune imwe nyukireya fission iri pakati pemaviri kana matatu manyuturoni anogadzirwa, kwete ese ma neutron anosunungurwa anokwanisa kukwanisa kuenderera neimwe fission reaction, asi mamwe acho akarasika. Kana idzi neutron dzakaburitswa nemaitiro ega ega dzakarasika pamwero wakakura kupfuura iwoyo vanokwanisa kuumbwa nefission, kuita kwecheni hakuzove kwakasimba uye zvichamira.

Naizvozvo, hukuru hwakakomba uhwu huchaenderana nezvinhu zvinoverengeka zvakaita seyepanyama uye zvombo zvenyukireya, geometry uye kuchena kweatomu yega yega.

Kuve neyakagadzika umo maturoni mashoma atiza, nharaunda geometry inodiwa, sezvo iine hushoma hunogoneka hwepamusoro nzvimbo kuitira kuti neutron leakage yakaderedzwa. Kana izvo zvinhu zvatinoshandisa kufission tinozvikomberedza ne neutron reflector, akawanda akawanda ma neutron akarasika uye huwandu hwakakosha hunodiwa hwaderedzwa. Izvi zvinoponesa zvigadzirwa.

Pnguva pfupi yenyukireya fission

Kana izvi zvikaitika, hazvidiwe kuti nyuturoni inofanirwa kutorwa kubva kunze, asi mune mamwe maisotopu euranium neplutonium, iine chimiro chisina kugadzikana cheatomiki, ivo vanokwanisa kufefetera kamwe kamwe.

Nechikonzero ichi, mune yega nyukireya fission reaction pane mukana pasekondi kuti atomu rinokwanisa kufefetera zvoga, ndiko kuti, pasina munhu anopindira. Semuyenzaniso, plutonium 239 ingangoita yekukasira fission pane uranium 235.

Neruzivo urwu ndinovimba iwe unoziva chimwe chinhu pamusoro pekuti simba renyukireya rakagadzirwa sei kugadzirwa kwemagetsi mumaguta.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako