Mhando dzebhatiri

marudzi emabhatiri

Bhatiri, rinodaidzwawo sero kana accumulator, mudziyo wakagadzirwa nemagetsi emagetsi anogona kushandura kemikari simba riri mukati mawo kuita simba remagetsi. Naizvozvo, mabhatiri anogadzira yakananga ikozvino uye nenzira iyi inopa maseketi akasiyana, zvichienderana nehukuru hwavo uye simba. Kune akawanda marudzi emabhatiri zvichienderana nekushandiswa kwavanenge vachizopihwa uye nehunhu hwavanahwo.

Muchikamu chino tichakuudza zvose zvaunoda kuziva pamusoro pemhando dzakasiyana dzemabhatiri uye maitiro avo.

Chii chinonzi bhatiri

kuiswa kwezuva

Kubva pakugadzirwa kwebhatiri muzana ramakore reXNUMX uye kushambadzira kwayo kukuru muzana ramakore rechiXNUMX, bhatiri rakanyatsobatanidzwa muhupenyu hwedu hwezuva nezuva. Kuvandudzwa kwemabhatiri kunofambidzana nekufambira mberi kwekombiyuta yemagetsi. Remote control, wachi, akasiyana makomputa, nharembozha Uye zvakawanda zvemazuva ano zvishandiso zvinoshandisa mabhatiri semasimba emagetsi, saka ane mazinga emagetsi akasiyana.

Kuchaja kwebhatiri kunotarwa nechimiro chechimiro chayo, mumaawa ampere (Ah), zvinoreva kuti bhatiri rinogona kupa 1 ampere yemazuva ano mumaawa akateedzana. Iyo yakakwirira yekuchajisa kwayo, iyo yakawanda ikozvino yainogona kuchengeta.

Chekupedzisira, kutenderera kwehupenyu hupfupi hwemabhatiri ekutengesa akawanda anoita kuti ave tsvina ine simba yemvura nevhu, nekuti kana hupenyu hwavo hwangopera, havagone kubhadhariswa kana kushandiswa zvakare uye kuraswa. Kana simbi yesimbi yava ngura, bhatiri ichasunungura chimiro chayo chemakemikari kune zvakatipoteredza uye shandura kuumbwa kwayo uye pH kukosha.

Mashandiro anoita bhatiri

Solar bhatiri

Bhatiri ine bhatiri yemakemikari ine electrode yakanaka uye electrode yakaipa. Nheyo yekutanga yebhatiri inosanganisira iyo oxidation-kuderedza (redox) maitiro emamwe makemikari, imwe yacho inorasa maerekitironi (oxidation) uye imwe inowana maerekitironi (kudzikisira), ayo vanogona kudzorerwa kune yavo yekutanga kugadzirisa pasi pemamiriro anodiwa.

Bhatiri rinosanganisira bhatiri remakemikari rine electrode yakanaka (anode) uye electrode yakaipa (cathode) uye electrolyte inobvumira ikozvino kubuda kunze. Aya mabhatiri anoshandura simba remakemikari kuita simba remagetsi kuburikidza nekugadzirisa kana kusagadziriswa, zvichienderana nemhando yebhatiri, kana yapera, ichapedza kukwanisa kwayo kugamuchira simba. Pano, marudzi maviri emasero anosiyaniswa:

  • Primary: avo vakamboita kamwe chete havagoni kudzokera kumamiriro avo epakutanga, nokudaro vachideredza kukwanisa kwavo kuchengeta ikozvino. Anonziwo mabhatiri asingachachageki.
  • zvikoro zvepamusoro: izvo zvinogona kugamuchira kushandiswa kwesimba remagetsi kudzorera makemikari ayo epakutanga, uye anogona kushandiswa kakawanda asati apera zvachose. Vanonzi zvakare mabhatiri emagetsi.

Mhando dzebhatiri

marudzi emabhatiri emotokari

Lithium mabhatiri ane nani simba density uye nani kubuda mwero. Kune marudzi akawanda emabhatiri, zvichienderana nezvikamu zvinoshandiswa mukugadzira, zvakadai se:

  • Alkaline mabhatiri. Kazhinji kamwe chete. Vanoshandisa potassium hydroxide (KOH) se electrolyte. Iko kemikari inogadzirisa iyo inogadzira simba inoitika pakati pezinc (Zn, anode) uye manganese dioxide (MnO2, cathode). Iwo mabhatiri akagadzikana zvakanyanya, asi ane hupenyu hupfupi.
  • Lead-asidhi mabhatiri. Inowanzowanikwa mumotokari uye midhudhudhu. Iwo mabhatiri anochajwa ane maelectrode maviri ekutungamirira kana achajiwa: lead dioxide (PbO2) cathode uye spongy lead (Pb) anode. Iyo electrolyte inoshandiswa ndeye aqueous solution ye sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Kune rimwe divi, bhatiri parinobuda, lead inoiswa pane metallic lead (Pb) nenzira yemutobvu (II) sulfate (PbSO4).
  • Nickel mabhatiri. Mutengo wacho wakaderera kwazvo, asi kuita kwacho kwakashata, ivo ndivo vekutanga kugadzirwa munhoroondo. Zvakare, vakagadzira mabhatiri matsva, akadai se:
  • Nickel-iron (Ni-Fe). Anosanganisira machubhu matete akakuvadzwa kubva kumashiti esimbi ane nickel-plated. Pane nickel (III) hydroxide (Ni (OH) 3) pane yakanaka ndiro uye iron (Fe) pahwendefa yakaipa. Iyo electrolyte inoshandiswa i potassium hydroxide (KOH). Kunyange zvazvo vane hupenyu hurefu hwebasa, vakaregererwa nekuda kwekushanda kwavo kwakaderera uye kudhura kwakanyanya.
  • Nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd). Izvo zvinosanganisira cadmium (Cd) anode uye nickel (III) hydroxide (Ni (OH) 3) cathode uye potassium hydroxide (KOH) se electrolyte. Aya mabhatiri anochajwa zvizere, asi ane yakaderera simba density (chete 50Wh / kg). Uye zvakare, nekuda kweiyo yakanyanya ndangariro mhedzisiro (iyo bhatiri huwandu hunodzikira kana isu tichiita isina kukwana kuchaja) uye yakakomba cadmium kusvibiswa, kushandiswa kwayo kushoma uye kushoma.
  • Nickel-hydride (Ni-MH). Vanoshandisa nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) seanode uye metal hydride alloy se cathode. Kuenzaniswa nemabhatiri enickel-cadmium, ane chaji yepamusoro uye yakaderera ndangariro, uye haakanganisa nharaunda nekuti haana Cd (yakanyanya kusvibisa uye ine ngozi). Ndivo mapiyona mumotokari dzemagetsi nekuti dzakakwana rechargeable.
  • Lithium-ion (Li-ION) bhatiri. Vanoshandisa lithium munyu se electrolyte. Ndiwo mabhatiri anonyanya kushandiswa muzvigadzirwa zvidiki zvemagetsi zvakaita senharembozha nezvimwe zvinotakurika. Ivo vanomira kunze kwehukuru hwavo hwesimba density, nekuwedzera, iwo akareruka, madiki uye anoshanda nemazvo, asi hurefu hunobatsira hupenyu makore matatu. Imwe bhenefiti yavo ndeye yakaderera memory maitiro. Pamusoro pezvo, dzinogona kuputika kana dzanyanya kupisa nekuti zvikamu zvadzo zvinobvira moto, saka mari yekugadzira yakakwira nekuti inofanirwa kunge iine zvinhu zvekuchengetedza.
  • Lithium polymer bhatiri (LiPo). Iwo akasiyana eakajairwa mabhatiri e-lithium, ane simba riri nani uye chiyero chiri nani chekuburitsa, asi chakashata ndechekuti haagone kushandiswa kana chaji iri pasi pe30%, saka zvakakosha kuti usavarega vachibuda zvachose. Vanogonawo kupisa uye kuputika, saka zvakakosha kuti usamirira kwenguva yakareba kuti utarise bhatiri kana kuichengeta munzvimbo yakachengeteka kure nezvinhu zvinopisa nguva dzose.

Mabhatiri uye mabhatiri

Munyika dzakawanda dzinotaura chiSpanish, izwi rekuti bhatiri chete ndiro rinoshandiswa. Muchiitiko ichi, mazwi ekuti bhatiri nebhatiri anofanana Uye dzinobva pamazuva ekutanga apo vanhu vaishandisa magetsi. Yekutanga bhatiri pack inogadzirwa nebhatiri packs kana simbi mahwendefa kuwedzera ikozvino yakapihwa pakutanga, uye inogona kurongeka nenzira mbiri: imwe pamusoro peimwe kugadzira sero, kana parutivi nepadivi, muchimiro chebhatiri. .

Nekudaro, zvinofanirwa kujekeswa kuti munyika dzakawanda dzinotaura chiSpanish chete izwi rekuti bhatiri rinoshandiswa, nepo kune mamwe midziyo yemagetsi, senge capacitors, izwi rekuti accumulators rinosarudzwa.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve marudzi emabhatiri aripo uye maitiro avo.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako