Oiri ichapera riinhi

mafuta paakapera

¿Oiri ichapera riinhi? Uyu mubvunzo uyo isu tese takazvibvunza isu pane imwe nguva muhupenyu hwedu. Oiri ndiyo inonyanya kushandiswa mafuta epasi pasi mukugadzira magetsi nedzimwe nzvimbo zhinji. Matura emafuta ane mashoma uye ikozvino nyika haina nguva yekumutsiridza pamwero wevanhu. Kupera kweiyi fossil mafuta kune vanhu mukunetseka.

Naizvozvo, isu tichaisa iyi chinyorwa kukuudza iwe kuti mafuta achapera riinhi uye nemhedzisiro yacho.

Hunhu hwemafuta

marasha emafuta

Iko kusanganiswa kwemhando dzakasiyana dzemhydrocarbon muchikamu chemvura. Iyo inoumbwa nezvimwe zvakasviba zvakakura uye inoshandiswa kuwana akasiyana mafuta uye ne-zvigadzirwa. Petrolium ipfossil huni inotorwa kubva muzvimedu zvezvipenyu zvemumvura, mhuka nemiti. Izvi zvisikwa zvinogara mugungwa, madziva nemiromo padyo negungwa.

Oiri yakawanikwa munhau ye sedimentary mavambo. Izvi zvinoreva kuti izvo zvinhu zvakagadzirwa zvakasikwa uye zvakafukidzwa nedutu. Yakadzika uye yakadzika, pasi pechiito chekumanikidza kwevhu, inoshandurwa kuita mahydrocarbon.

Maitiro aya anotora mamirioni emakore. Naizvozvo, kunyangwe oiri ichigadzirwa nguva dzose, mwero wayo wekugadzira hauna basa nevanhu. Chii chimwe, mwero wekushandisa kwemafuta wakakwira zvekuti zuva rekuparara kwaro rakatemwa. Mukugadzirwa kwemafuta, mabhakitiriya eerobic anotanga kuita uye mabacteria anaerobic anoenda zvakadzika. Aya maitiro anoburitsa oxygen, nitrogen, uye nesarufa. Aya maitiro anoburitsa oxygen, nitrogen, uye nesarufa. Zvinhu izvi zvitatu chikamu chemakemikari asingachinji ehydrocarbon.

Kana sediment ikamanikidzwa pasi pekumanikidza, hwaro hwakaumbwa. Gare gare, nekuda kwemhedzisiro yekutama, mafuta akatanga kuzadza matombo ese anonyanyisa uye anowoneka. Matombo aya anonzi 'matombo ekuchengetedza'. Mafuta anonamira ipapo uye anoramba arimo. Nenzira iyi, maitiro ekuburitsa oiri anoitwa kuitora semafuta.

Oiri ichapera riinhi

mafuta paakapera uye chii chaizoitika

Pakaburitswa "Mad Max" muna 1980, fungidziro pamusoro pekuguma kwenyika uko kushaikwa kwemafuta kuchachinja nyika haina kuita kunge ingano yesainzi. Kutambura kwaMel Gibson panguva yerwendo kunoratidza chaiko-kutya pasi rose kwekukwira kwemitengo yesimba, kupisa matsime muIran neIraq nekuda kwehondo, nekudzivirira mirairo.

Zvisinei, Mad Max aikanganisa. Dhiramu rekupedzisira remafuta rakapiswa pasi harizodhura mamirioni emadhora uye kukosha kwaro kuchava zero. Ino haizove yekupedzisira nguva, nekuti zvapera, asi nekuti hapana anoda nguva inotevera. Mubvunzo wezana ramakore makumi maviri kuti unetseke kuti oiri ichapera riinhi. Muna XXI, mubvunzo mutsva ndewekuti tinoda kuramba tichiishandisa kwenguva yakareba sei.

Iko kutya kukuru kwemafuta kusvika parizvino kwakatenderedza nguva yekukurumidza kana kugadzirwa kwepamusoro (mafuta epamusoro) uye kuri kuwedzera kushomeka.

Sezvo dhiramu rekutanga remafuta rakatorwa muPennsylvania (United States) muna 1859, kudiwa hakuna kumira kukura. Chii chinoitika kana matsime aripo apera? Uku ndiko kurota kwakaipisisa kwekufambira mberi kwenyika. Oiri yakapa simba pasi rose kwemakore zana nemakumi mashanu, asi inogona kunge isisiri injini yayo yehupfumi makore gumi kubva zvino.

Kunyangwe OPEC, iyo ngano cartel yemafuta-anotumira kunze nyika, inobvuma kuti yepamusoro kudikanwa kuri kusvika, ndiko kuti, kana mafuta ekushandisa anokwira uye anoenda mukudzikira zvachose. Izvo zvisina kusvika chibvumirano aive mazwi.

Kubvisa mafuta

kupera kwemafuta

Chii chiri kuchinja mitemo yemutambo ndiko kwazvino tekinoroji kumberi. Kutanga, nekuti vanobvumidza kuburitswa kwenzvimbo dzinochengeterwa uye kushandiswa kwemahydrocarbon asina kujairika mune yakadzika-yakadzika mvura, ndosaka kupera kwemafuta kuri padyo padyo kuri kuenda mberi nekure kure. Chii chimwe, kuvandudzwa kwemamwe masosi esimba kunovaita kuti vawedzere kushanda. Sekureva kwenyanzvi, vanozopedzisira vatsiva mafuta epasi.

OPEC inotenda kuti kudzikira kwepasirese kudiwa mushure megore ra2040 ndiyo ingangoitika mamiriro ezvinhu mune ramangwana. Kunyangwe ivo vaiziva kuti kana nyika zhinji dzikatora zvakakomba matanho ekugadzirisa shanduko yemamiriro ekunze akatenderana pamusangano weParis, na2029, unogona kusvika pamuganhu wepamusoro nekukurumidza. Pasi pemamiriro ezvinhu aya, vakafungidzira kuti kudyiwa kwepasirese kwaizokwira kubva pamabharani mamirioni makumi mapfumbamwe nemapfumbamwe pazuva kusvika pakukwirira kwemabhirioni emamirioni zana nehafu pazuva mumakore gumi chete, zvobva zvatanga zvishoma nezvishoma kudzikira.

Tsvagurudzo yesangano rekuchengetedza zvakatipoteredza ine tarisiro yakawanda uye inofambira mberi iyo yakanyanya kudikanwa kusvika 2020. Simba rezuva rinomiririra 23% yenyika inowanikwa muna 2040 uye inosvika 29% muna 2050.

Zvisinei, shanduko iyi haizoitika nekukurumidza. Oiri ichiri 31% yepasi rose simba rekudiwa kwesimba (nepo simba rinowedzerwazve, kusanganisira hydropower uye biomass simba kudiwa, inongoverengera 13%), saka kupera kwayo hakuzoitika kamwe kamwe. Makambani ari muindasitiri ino uye nenyika dzinogadzira vari kugadzirira nyika nyowani yakatosiyana neiyo yatinoziva.

Mitengo yemafuta yakagadzikana pakati pe $ 60 ne $ 70 dhiramu uye hazvigone kukwira. Rimwe dambudziko hombe mutengo. Kubva pakubvumirana kwemusika, haizove yakakwira zvakanyanya kupfuura zvazviri ikozvino, kana zvirinani haizoone iyo $ 100 yakakwira makore matatu apfuura. Iyo nyowani yepamusoro muganho yakatenderedza US $ 60/70 pa barrel, nekuti pamusoro pechikwiriso ichi, hydraulic kutsemura uye yakadzika-yegungwa kuchera iyo inokoshesa echinyakare inogadzira nyika inova inobatsira. Uye zvakare, kana mutengo wemahydrocarbon ukapfuura iyo yepamusoro muganho, kudyara mune dzimwe nzvimbo sosi dzemagetsi kuchasimudzirwa uye kudiwa kuchadzikira.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezvekuti mafuta achapera riinhi uye chii chakakosha.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako