Kukosha kwekutenderera kwemvura kwepasi

mvura yakakosha zvakanyanya kune hupenyu hwepasi. Kutenderera kwemvura

Zvirokwazvo imwe nguva, mukati mehupenyu hwako hwese, iwe wakatsanangurwa kuti chii kutenderera kwemvura. Maitiro ese aayakaita kubvira paanoturuka muchimiro chemvura, chando kana chimvuramabwe kusvikira abuda zvakare aumba makore. Nekudaro, yega yega chikamu cheichi chiitiko icho chinoyerera chemvura chine zvinhu uye zvinhu zvakakosha kune kukura kwehupenyu uye kurarama kwevakawanda vapenyu nemagariro avo.

Iwe ungade here kuziva nhanho nhanho kukosha kwekutenderera kwemvura papasi?

Chii chinonzi kutenderera kwemvura?

pfupiso pamatanho ekutenderera kwemvura

Pasi pano pane chinhu chiri mukuenderera kufamba uye chinogona kuve mumatunhu matatu: yakasimba, mvura uye gasi. Zviri nezvemvura. Mvura iri kuramba ichichinja mamiriro uye ndeyeye inoenderera nzira iyo yanga ichingoitika kwemabhiriyoni emakore papasi redu. Pasina kutenderera kwemvura, hupenyu sekuziva kwedu hwaisakwanisa kukura.

Kutenderera kwemvura uku hakutangi mune chero nzvimbo, ndiko kuti, haina mavambo kana magumo, asi iri mukufamba kunoramba kuripo. Kuitsanangura uye kuita kuti zvive nyore, isu tinoteedzera kutanga uye kupera. Kutenderera kwemvura kunotangira mumakungwa. Ikoko, mvura inopwa yoenda mumhepo, ichichinja kuita mhute yemvura. Iyo inokwira mhepo inoyerera nekuda kwekusiyana kwekumanikidza, tembiricha uye kuwanda kunokonzera kuti mweya wemvura usvike kumatenga ekumusoro kwedenga, uko tembiricha yepasi yemhepo inokonzeresa kuti mvura itonhorere uye makore aumbike. Sezvo mhepo yemhepo inokura uye ichichinjika, makore anokura muhukuru uye ukobvu, kusvikira vadonha semvura. 

Kunaya kunogona kuitika nenzira dzinoverengeka: mvura yemvura, chando kana chimvuramabwe. Chikamu chemvura inonaya muchimiro chechando chinoungana chichiumba machira echando uye echando. Izvi zvinokwanisa kuchengetedza mvura yechando kwemamirioni emakore. Yasara mvura inodonha semvura inonaya mumakungwa, mumakungwa nepamusoro penyika. Nekuda kwemhedzisiro yegiravhiti, kana dzangowira pamusoro, mvura yemvura inogadzirwa iyo inopa kukwira kwenzizi nehova. Munzizi, mvura inoendeswa kumashure kugungwa. Asi haazi ese mvura inowira pamusoro penyika inoenda kunzizi, asi zhinji yacho inoungana. Chikamu chikuru chemvura iyi kunyura nekupinda uye inoramba yakachengetwa semvura yepasi. Imwe inochengetwa ichiumba madziva nematsime.

Mvura inopinda isina kudzika inonwiwa nemidzi yezvirimwa zvekudyisa uye chikamu chayo chinopfuura nepasi pemashizha, saka inodzokera mumhepo zvakare.

Pakupedzisira, mvura dzese dzinodzokera mumakungwa, sezvo izvo zvinonyorova, sezvingabvira, zvinodzokera muchimiro chemvura mumakungwa nemumakungwa, "ichivhara" kutenderera kwemvura.

Nhanho dzekutenderera kwemvura

Kutenderera kwemvura kune zvikamu zvakasiyana zvinoteedzana mumatanho. Iyo US Geological Ongororo (USGS) yakaratidza zvikamu gumi neshanu mukutenderera kwemvura:

  • Mvura inochengetwa mumakungwa
  • Kwemvura
  • Mvura mumhepo
  • Condensation
  • Kunzwisisa
  • Mvura yakachengetwa muchando nechando
  • Sungunusa mvura
  • Kumhanya kwemvura
  • Rukova rwemvura
  • Yakachengeterwa mvura nyowani
  • Kupinda mukati
  • Kubuda kwepasi pemvura
  • Zvitubu
  • Kufemera
  • Akachengetwa pasi pemvura
  • Kuparadzirwa kwemvura pasi rese

Mvura yakachengetwa mumakungwa nemakungwa

makungwa anochengetedza mvura zhinji kwazvo pasi

Kunyangwe ichifungidzirwa kuti gungwa riri kuramba richiita kubuda kwemvura, huwandu hwemvura hunochengetwa mumakungwa hwakawanda kupfuura uhwo hunobuda. Kune angangoita 1.386.000.000 cubic kilometres emvura akachengetwa mugungwa, ayo makiromita zviuru makumi mana chete ivo vari mukufamba kunopfuurira kuburikidza nekutenderera kwemvura. Makungwa ndiwo anokonzera 90% yemvura yenyika.

Makungwa ari mukufamba kwenguva dzose nekuda kwesimba remuchadenga. Neichi chikonzero, kune akakurumbira mafashama munyika seGulf Stream. Kutenda kune aya mafashama, mvura inobva mumakungwa inoendeswa kunzvimbo dzese dzePasi.

Kwemvura

mvura inopwa kunyange isina kuvira

Izvo zvakambotaurwa kuti mvura iri mukuenderera shanduko yenyika: mhute, mvura uye yakasimba. Kusimuka kwemvura ndiyo nzira inoshandiswa nemvura kushandura mamiriro ayo kubva pamvura kuita gasi. Kutenda kwariri, mvura inowanikwa munzizi, nyanza uye nyanza inodzokera zvakare muchadenga muchimiro chemhute uye, painogwamba, inogadzira makore.

Chokwadi waifunga kuti nei mvura inopwa kana isiri kufashaira. Izvi zvinoitika nekuti simba riri munharaunda nenzira yekupisa rinokwanisa kudambura zvisungo zvinobata mamorekuru emvura pamwechete. Kana zvisungo izvi zvadamburwa, mvura inoshanduka kubva pairi mvura kusvika pagasi. Nechikonzero ichi, kana tembiricha ikakwira kusvika pa100 ° C, mvura inovira uye zviri nyore uye nekukurumidza kuchinja kubva pamvura kuita gasi.

Mune chiyero chemvura chakazara, zvinogona kutaurwa kuti huwandu hwemvura hunobuda, hunopedzisira hwawira zvakare muchimiro chemvura. Izvi zvisinei zvinosiyana nenzvimbo. Pamusoro pemakungwa, kubuda kwemvura kunowanzoitika kupfuura kunaya kwemvura; mvura painonaya inodarika kubuda kwemvura. Inenge gumi muzana yemvura chete iyo vaporize kubva mumakungwa inowira paPasi muchimiro chemvura.

Mvura yakachengetwa mumhepo

mweya unogara uine mvura mhute

Mvura inogona kuchengetwa mudenga semhute, hunyoro, uye ichiumba makore. Iko hakuna yakawanda yakachengetwa mvura mudenga, asi inzira inokurumidza yemvura kutakurwa nekufambiswa kutenderera pasirese. Panogara paine mvura mudenga kunyangwe pasina makore. Mvura inochengetwa mumhepo ndiyo iyo 12.900 cubic kilometres.

Condensation

makore anoumbwa nekudziya kwehutsi hwemvura

Ichi chikamu chemvura kutenderera ndiko kwazvinoenda kubva kune gasi kuenda kune yakasviba nyika. Ichi chikamu yakakosha kuti makore aumbe izvo, gare gare, zvinopa kunaya. Condensation zvakare iri kukonzera zviitiko zvakadai semhute, fogging kumusoro kwemahwindo, huwandu hwunyoro hwezuva, madonhwe ayo anokomberedza girazi, nezvimwe.

Mamorekuru emvura anosangana netudiki-diki seguruva, munyu, uye utsi kuita matonhwe egore, ayo anokura oita makore. Kana madonhwe egore akasangana pamwe chete anokura muhukuru, achigadzira makore uye kunaya kunogona kuitika.

Kunzwisisa

kunaya kwemvura muchimiro chemvura ndiyo yakanyanya kuwanda

Kunaya kunaya ndiko kudonha kwemvura, zvese zviri mumvura uye fomu yakasimba. Mazhinji madonhwe emvura anoita gore usamhanye, sezvo vari pasi pesimba remhepo inoyerera. Kuti mvura inaye, kuti iitike, madonhwe acho anofanira kutanga anyurana obva adhumhana, achiumba madonhwe emvura akakura anorema kudonha nekukunda kushorwa kunoiswa nemhepo. Kuti ugadzire donhwe remvura unoda madonhwe mazhinji egore.

Mvura yakachengetwa muchando uye mazaya echando

mazaya echando ane yakawanda mvura yakachengetedzwa

Mvura inowira kumatunhu uko tembiricha inogara iri pazasi pe 0 ° C, mvura inochengetwa ichiumba maaizi, nzvimbo dzechando kana minda yechando Iyi vhoriyamu yemvura mune yakasimba mamiriro inochengeterwa kwenguva yakareba yenguva. Mazhinji echando mashoma paPasi, inenge 90% inowanikwa muAntarctica, nepo iyo gumi yasara iri muGreenland.

Thaw mvura

Mvura inoguma nekunyungudika kwemazaya echando neminda yechando uye sinou inoyerera ichienda mumakosi emvura semvura inoyerera. Pasi rese, runoff inogadzirwa nemeltwater chinhu chakakosha chinopa kutenderera kwemvura.

Mazhinji emvura yakanyunguduka inoitika muchirimo, apo kutonhora kunokwira.

Kumhanya kwemvura

Meltwater uye mvura inogadzira pamusoro pemvura

Surface runoff inokonzereswa nemvura yemvura uye inowanzo kutungamirirwa kunzira yemvura. Mazhinji emvura ari munzizi anouya kubva pamusoro pemvura. Kana kwanaya, chimwe chikamu chemvura iyoyo chinonwiwa nevhu, asi kana chikaguta kana kusaguta, chinotanga kumhanya pasi, zvichitevera kukombamira kwembichana.

Huwandu hwekumhanya kwemvura hunosiyana ne hukama nenguva uye jogirafi. Kune nzvimbo dzinonaya mvura yakawanda uye dzakanyanya uye dzinotungamira kumvura yakasimba.

Rukova rwemvura

Mvura inoyerera nenzira yayo munzizi

Mvura iri kufamba mukuenderera sezvazvinogona kuita murwizi. Nzizi dzakakosha kune vanhu uye kune zvimwe zvipenyu. Nzizi dzinoshandiswa kupa mvura yekunwa, kudiridza, kugadzira magetsi, kubvisa marara, kutakura zvigadzirwa, kuwana chikafu, nezvimwe. Zvimwe zvisikwa zvipenyu vanoda mvura yemurwizi senzvimbo yekugara.

Nzizi dzinobatsira kuchengetedza mvura izere nemvura, sezvo vachiburitsa mvura mukati mavo kuburikidza nemibhedha yavo. Uye, makungwa anochengetwa nemvura, senzizi uye kuyerera kuri kuramba kuchipa mvura mukati mawo.

Kuchengetwa kwemvura kutsva

pasi pevhu inopa maguta

Mvura inowanikwa pamusoro pechiso chenyika inochengetwa munzira mbiri: pamusoro pemvura semadhamu kana madziva kana pasi pevhu semvura yemumvura. Ichi chikamu chekuchengetedza mvura chakakosha zvakanyanya kune hupenyu hwepasi. Pamusoro pemvura inosanganisira hova, madziva, madziva, madziva (makungwa akagadzirwa nevanhu), nenzvimbo nyoro dzemvura isina mvura.

Huwandu hwemvura iri munzizi nemadhamu iri kuramba ichichinja nekuda kwemvura inopinda nekusiya system. Mvura inopinda kuburikidza nekunaya, kuyerera, iyo mvura iyo inopinda kuburikidza nekupinda, kubuda kwemvura ...

Kupinda mukati

tsananguro yeiyo yekupinda maitiro

Kupinda mukati ndiko kufamba kwakadzika kwemvura kubva pasi peNyika kuenda kune ivhu kana matombo anopinza. Mvura inoyerera iyi inouya kubva kunaya. Imwe yemvura inopinda inoramba iri muzvikamu zvepamusoro zvevhu uye inogona kupinda zvakare murukova rwemvura painopinda mukati mayo. Chimwe chikamu chemvura chinogona kupinda zvakadzika, nokudaro uchichinjisa zvekare epasi pemvura.

Kubuda kwepasi pemvura

Iko kufamba kwemvura kubva muvhu. Muzviitiko zvakawanda, mutero mukuru wemvura yenzizi unobva mumvura yepasi.

Zvitubu

chikamu chemvura yematsime

Zvitubu ndiyo nzvimbo dzinoburitswa mvura yepasi nepamusoro. Chitubu chinozoitika kana mvura yemvura inozara kusvika panofashukira mvura pamusoro penyika. Zvitubu zvinosiyana muhukuru, kubva kuzvitubu zvidiki zvinongoyerera mushure memvura zhinji, kusvika kumadhibhi makuru kwaanoyerera mamirioni emarita emvura zuva nezuva.

Kufemera

zvirimwa zvinodikitira

Ndiwo maitiro anoita kuti mweya wemvura utize kubva mumiti kubudikidza nepamusoro pemashizha uye wopinda mudenga. Zvikanzi seizvi, ziya ndiro huwandu hwemvura inopwa kubva mumashizha emiti. Inofungidzirwa kuti kutenderedza 10% yehumhu hwemhepo Izvo zvinobva mukudikitira kwezvirimwa.

Maitiro aya, kupihwa madonhwe emvura ari madiki sei, haaonekwe.

Akachengetwa pasi pemvura

Iyi mvura ndiyo yakasara kwemamirioni emakore uye chikamu chemvura. Mvura iri mumvura inoramba ichifamba, kunyange zvishoma nezvishoma. Mvura inochengeterwa mvura ndiyo nzvimbo huru yemvura paPasi uye vanhu vazhinji kupota nyika vanovimba nemvura yepasi.

Nematanho ese akatsanangurwa iwe unozogona kuve neakakura uye akajeka maonero ekufamba kwemvura uye kukosha kwayo pasirese pasiti.

 


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Maria B. akadaro

    Ndakafarira chinyorwa chenyu. Inoratidzira kwazvo.
    Zvinotaridza kuti poindi yekupedzisira haipo: Kugovaniswa kwepasi rose kwemvura.
    Ndatenda zvikuru nekutivhenekera mune ino nyaya inonakidza.

    1.    ChiGerman Portillo akadaro

      Ndatenda zvikuru nekuverenga kwako! Kwaziwai!