Formic acid

kushandiswa kwe methanoic acid

El formic acid o Methanoic acid ndiyo yakapfava uye diki musanganiswa weese organic acids. Iyo ine molecular formula HCOOH ine atomu imwe chete yehydrogen yakasungirirwa kuatomu kabhoni. Zita rayo rinobva pashoko rokuti formica, iro rinoreva svosve muchiLatin. Iyo yakakosha yakakosha komisheni munyika yemakemikari uye inoshandiswa zvakanyanya nhasi.

Nechikonzero ichi, isu tichakumikidza chinyorwa ichi kukuudza zvese zvaunoda kuziva nezve formic acid, maitiro ayo uye kukosha kwayo.

Mhando huru

Formic acid formula

Vemuzana ramakore regumi neshanu vanoongorora zvakasikwa vakawana kuti mamwe marudzi ezvipembenene (termicides), akadai majuru, mujuru, nyuchi nezvipembenene, vanobudisa mukomboni uyu unovarwadza kurumwa. Mukuwedzera, zvipembenene izvi zvinoshandisa chikamu ichi senzira yekurwisa, kudzivirira uye chiratidzo chemakemikari.

Vane matinji ane chepfu anodzinga iyi nemamwe maasidhi, senge acetic acid, kubva mumuviri semhute. Formic acid yakasimba kudarika acetic acid (CH3COOH); saka, chiyero chakaenzana chefomic acid yakanyungudutswa mumvura ichaita mhinduro ine pH yakaderera.

Muzvinafundo wechiRungu John Ray vakawana kuparadzaniswa kwekomboni iyi muna 1671, yakatorwa kubva muhuwandu hwemajuru. Kune rumwe rutivi, yekutanga yakabudirira synthesis yekomboni iyi yakaitwa neFrench chemist uye fizikisi Joseph Gay-Lussac vachishandisa hydrocyanic acid (HCN) sereagent.

formic acid mune zvakasikwa

formic acid

Formic acid inogona kuvapo pamazinga epasi, sechikamu chebiomass kana mumhepo, ichitora chikamu mune dzakasiyana siyana dzemakemikari reactions, inogona kunyange kuwanikwa pasi pevhu, mumafuta kana muchikamu chegasi pamusoro payo.

Panyaya yebiomass, zvipembenene nezvirimwa ndizvo zvinonyanya kugadzira asidhi iyi. Kana zvicherwa zvikapisa, zvinogadzira gaseous formic acid; saka, injini dzemotokari dzinoburitsa asidhi iyi mumhepo.

Zvisinei, kune majuru mazhinji anogara panyika. uye kugadzirwa kwefomic acid pakati pavo kwakakura zvakapetwa kane zviuru kudarika kuwanda kwemethanoic acid inogadzirwa neindasitiri yevanhu mugore rimwe chete. Kupisa kwemasango zvakare kunopa gasi kune formic acid.

Kumusoro, mune yakaoma atmospheric matrix, photochemical process ye synthesis ye formic acid inoitika. Panguva ino, akawanda anoputika organic compounds (VOCs) anodzikira pasi pekuita kweiyo UV mwaranzi kana oxidized neOH radical mechanism. Iyo yakapfuma uye yakaoma yekemisitiri yemhepo iri kure tsime guru remethanoic acid paNyika.

Atomic chimiro che formic acid

chimiro che methanoic acid

Mufananidzo uri pamusoro unoratidza chimiro chegasi chikamu dimer ye formic acid. Mabhora machena anoenderana nemaatomu ehydrogen, matsvuku maatomu eokisijeni uye matema nemaatomu ecarbon.

Mapoka maviri anogona kuonekwa mumamorekuru aya: hydroxyl (-OH) uye formyl (-CH = O), izvo zvinokwanisa kugadzira hydrogen bonds. Kudyidzana uku ndekwerudzi rweOHO, uko boka rehydroxyl ndiro H donor uye boka reformyl ndiro O donor.

Nekudaro, H yakasungwa kumaatomu ecarbon inoshaya kugona uku. Kudyidzana uku kwakasimba zvikuru, uye haidhirojeni iri muboka reOH yakawedzera asidhi nekuda kweatomu isina maerekitironi H; Saka, iyi hydrogen inowedzera kudzikamisa zambuko. Nekuda kwezviri pamusoro, formic acid iripo se dimer uye kwete semorekuru wega.

Sezvo tembiricha inodzikira, dimer inotungamira mabhondi ayo ehydrogen kuti igadzire iyo yakanyanya kugadzikana chimiro nemamwe madimers, zvichikonzera kusingaperi alpha uye beta cheni dzemethanoic acid. Ichi chimiro chekristaro Zvinoenderana nemhando dzemuviri dzinoita pairi, sekumanikidza uye tembiricha.. Nokudaro, cheni inoshandurwa. Kana dzvinyiriro ikawedzera kusvika kumazinga akanyanya, maketani anotsikirirwa zvakakwana kuti aonekwe secrystalline polymer yefomic acid.

Propiedades

Isu tichatarisa pakutsanangura iyo huru zvivakwa zve formic acid:

  • methanoic asidhi ndiyo mvura isina ruvara pakamuri tembiricha ine kunhuwa kwakasimba kunopinza. Iine huremu hwe46g/mol, nzvimbo yakanyunguduka ye8,4ºC uye nzvimbo yekuvira ye100,8ºC, yakakwirira kudarika yemvura.
  • Kusanganiswa nemvura uye polar organic solvents senge ether, acetone, methanol uye ethanol.
  • Mukupesana, muzvinonyungudutsa zvinonhuhwirira zvakaita sebenzene netoluene, hainyanyi kunyungudika nekuti formic acid ine maatomu ecarbon mashoma muchimiro chayo.
  • Iyo ine pKa ye3,77, iyo yakawanda acidic kupfuura acetic acid, iyo inogona kutsanangurwa nokuti boka remethyl rinopa electron density kune kabhoni atomu oxidized neokisijeni maviri. Izvi zvinoguma nekudzikira kudiki kwe acidity yemaproton (CH3COOH, HCOOH).
  • Kamwe asidhi yacho yakabviswa, inoshandurwa kuita formate anion HCOO-, iyo inobvisa kupomerwa kwakashata pakati pemaatomu maviri eokisijeni. Nokudaro, iyo anion yakagadzikana uye inokonzera iyo yakawanda acidity yefomic acid.

Kushandisa Formic Acid

Indasitiri yezvekudya nekurima

Inokuvadza semethanoic acid, inoshandiswa muhuwandu hwakakwana sechikafu chekuchengetedza nekuda kweiyo antibacterial effect. Nechikonzero chimwe chete icho chinoshandiswa mukurima, chinewo zvipembenene. Iyo ine zvakare antiseptic effect pauswa uye inobatsira kudzivirira intestinal gasi mumhuka dzepurazi.

Indasitiri yemachira neshangu

Inoshandiswa muindasitiri yemachira kudhayira nekunatsa machira uye pamwe ndiyo inonyanya kushandiswa iyi asidhi. Formic acid inoshandiswa pakugadzirisa dehwe uye depilation yechinhu ichi ne chiito chayo chekudzikisa. Deprotonation yeformic acid inoshandura kuita anion HCOO- formate, iyo inobvisa kupomerwa kwakashata pakati pemaatomu maviri eokisijeni. Nokudaro, iyo anion yakagadzikana uye inokonzera iyo yakawanda acidity yefomic acid.

Kuchengetedzwa kwemugwagwa

Kuwedzera kune yakatsanangurwa maindasitiri mashandisirwo, formic acid derivatives (fomati) inoshandiswa mumigwagwa yechando muSwitzerland neAustria. kuderedza njodzi yetsaona. Kurapa uku kunoshanda kupfuura kushandisa munyu wetafura.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve formic acid, chimiro chayo uye mashandisiro ayo.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako