Eutrophication

eutrophication yemvura chinhu chechisikigo asi chinoitwa nevanhu

Iwe unoziva iyo eutrophication yemvura? Kune akawanda matambudziko ezvakatipoteredza ane chekuita nekusviba kwemvura. Tinotsanangura kusvibiswa kwemvura Chemhondoro kurasikirwa kwemaitiro echisikigo emvura uye kuumbwa kwayo nekuda kwevamiriri vekunze, kungave kwechisikigo kana kwekugadzira. Kune mhando dzakawanda dzezvinhu zvinosvibisa izvo zvinokwanisa kugadzirisa, kushandura uye kudzikisira hunhu hwemukati memvura. Nekuda kwekusvibiswa kwemvura, inorasikirwa nekushanda kwayo muzvinhu zvakasikwa uye haichanwiwe kuvanhu, kuwedzera pakuva chepfu.

Pakati pemhando dzekusviba kwemvura dziripo nhasi isu ticha taura nezvadzo eutrophication. Eutrophication yemvura chiitiko chechisikigo muhupenyu hwemvura, hwakaumbwa nekuvandudza kwehutano hunogadzirwa ne yakawandisa organic chinhu yakaburitswa munzizi nemadhamu nemaitiro evanhu. Eutrophication yemvura inosangana nematambudziko api kumunhu uye kune zvakasikwa zvisikwa?

Tsanangudzo yemhando yemvura

Hunhu hwemvura hunosimbiswa neMvura Sisitimu Yekuraira

Kutanga kutaura nezve eutrophication yemvura (sekutaura kwatamboita, irwo rudzi rwekusviba kwemvura) isu tinofanirwa kutsanangura, zvinoenderana nemutemo uripo, chii chinonzi mvura mune yakanaka mamiriro.

Isu tinotsanangura mhando yemvura seyakagadzika epanyama, makemikari uye zvipenyu zvinoratidzwa nemvura iyi uye zvainazvo iyo inobvumira hupenyu hwezvisikwa zvinogara mairi. Kune izvi, inofanirwa kuve nehunhu hwakawanda:

  • Iva wakasununguka nezvezvinhu uye zvidiki zvine njodzi kune vatengi.
  • Iva wakasununguka pane zvinhu izvo zvinopa zvisingafadzi hunhu hwekushandisa (ruvara, turbidity, kunhuwidza, kuravira).

Kuti tizive mamiriro ari mvura imomo, tinofanirwa kuenzanisa ma parameter akawanikwa mushure mekuongororwa murabhoritari nemimwe mitemo yemhando yemvura. Aya matanho anoiswa neDhairekitori 2000/60 / EC yeParamende yeEuropean uye neKanzuru, iyo inosimbisa nharaunda yenzvimbo yekuita mundima yemutemo wemvura, unonyatso kuzivikanwa se Yemvura Sisitimu Yekuraira. Iyi Directive inovavarira kuzadzisa nekuchengetedza Yakanaka ecological uye chimiro chemvura.

Eutrophication yemvura

Makungwa nenzizi dzakatsemurwa dzakasvibiswa

Mumakore mazana maviri apfuura, munhu akawedzera maitiro eutrophication modhi, achigadzirisa ese mhando yemvura uye chimiro chenharaunda dzehupenyu dzinogara mairi.

Eutrophication inogadzira kukura kukuru kwe microalgae iyo inonaya mvura yakasvibira. Ruvara urwu runokonzera chiedza chezuva kuti chisapinda mumatanda ezasi emvura, saka algae padanho iro haigashire mwenje kuti iite photosynthesis, iyo inotungamira kurufu rweiyo algae. Kufa kweiyo algae kunogadzira mupiro wekuwedzera wezvinhu zvakasikwa kuitira kuti nzvimbo igoora uye nzvimbo inoderedza (izvi zvinoreva nharaunda yakaderera muoksijeni).

Mhedzisiro ye eutrophication yemvura

mhuka uye zvirimwa zvinofa mukufa

Kana paine eutrophication, mvura inorasikirwa zvakanyanya nekugona kushandiswa kwayakagadzirirwa uye zvakare inokonzeresa kufa kwemarudzi emhuka, kuora kwemvura uye kukura kwehutachiona (kunyanya hutachiona).

Pamusoro pezvo, pane dzakawanda nguva, utachiona hunove nenjodzi kuhutano hwevanhu, sezvazviri nezvirwere zvinotakurwa nemvura.

Eutrophication inoshandura hunhu hwenzvimbo yezvakatipoteredza yemumvura kugadzirisa chikafu cheni uye kuwedzera iyo entropy (kusagadzikana) kweiyo ecosystem. Izvi zvine mhedzisiro senge kurasikirwa kwekusiyana-siyana kwezvakatipoteredza, kusaenzana kwezvakatipoteredza, nekuti nemhando shomana dzinowirirana, hupfumi uye kusiana kwemajini kunodzikira.

Kana imwe nzvimbo yarasikirwa nekwaniso yadzo kana yemhando dzakasiyana, zvipenyu izvo zvinonyanya kuita mukana zvinowanda, zvichitora niches yakavakwa kare nedzimwe mhando. Iyo yemhedzisiro mhedzisiro yemvura eutrophication inoperekedzwa ne migumisiro yezvehupfumi. Kurasikirwa kwemvura yekunwa uye mamiriro akanaka enzizi nemadhamu zvinotungamira mukurasikirwa kwehupfumi.

Matanho eutrophication emvura

Iyo eutrophication yemvura haina kuitika pakarepo, asi ine nhanho dzinoverengeka sezvatichaona pazasi:

Oligotrophic nhanho

nhanho ine mishonga inodiwa muhupenyu

Izvi zvinowanzo kuve zvakajairika uye zvine hutano mamiriro ezvisikwa. Semuenzaniso, rwizi ecosystem, ine pakati nepakati kuvapo kwezvakakwana zvinovaka muviri zvekuchengetedza mhando dzemhuka nezvirimwa zvinogara mairi uye zvine mwero wakaringana wemwenje kuti algae ikwanise kupepeta mukati mayo.

Muchikamu cheoligotrophic mvura ine pachena uye mukati mayo kune mhuka dzinofema nekusefa oxygen.

Nutrient kupihwa

kuburitsa izvo zvinokonzeresa kuwedzera kupihwa mishonga

Kuwanikwa kusingaenzaniswi kwemutumbi kunogona kunge kushoma, tsaona kana kuita chimwe chinhu chichienderera nekufamba kwenguva. Kana nguva nenguva paine kurasikira kunokonzera kuwanda kwehutano munzizi, ecosystem inogona kupora. Nekudaro, kana kuwedzerwa kwekuwedzera kweutanho kukatanga kuenderera, kukura kukuru kwezvirimwa uye algae zvichatanga.

Iko kune unicellular algae inokura mumvura, munzvimbo yemifananidzo yakafanana. Sezvo iwo ari photosynthetic algae, ivo vanopa mvura iyo greenish ruvara iyo inodzivirira kupfuura kwechiedza pakadzika uko kwayakambosvika. Izvi zvinogadzira dambudziko kune izvo zvirimwa zviri pazasi pe photic zone, nekuti, kusawana zuva rakaringana, havagone photosynthesize uye kufa.

Uye zvakare, nekuda kwekuwedzeredza kwehutano, huwandu hwezvirimwa uye algae zvinokura zvakanyanya uye, sezvazviri mune zvese zvakasikwa ecosystem, iyo ecological muyero wakaputsika. Iye zvino mamiriro acho anotaridzika seizvi: zvakawanda zvinovaka muviri kune huwandu hwevanhu. Nekudaro, iyi mamiriro haigone kuenderera kwenguva refu, kunyanya nekuti vanhu vanopedza zvinovaka muviri uye vanoguma vofa vodzokera kuzasi kwerwizi kana nyanza.

Eutrophic nhanho

nhanho uko kukura kwealgae kuri kukuru

Chinhu chakafa chiri pasi pasi chinoora nemabhakitiriya anodya oxygen uye anogona zvakare kugadzira muchetura unouraya kumiti nemhuka.

Kushaikwa kwe okisijeni kunokonzeresa mollusks pasi kuzofa uye hove nemakustaceans anofa kana kutizira kunzvimbo dzisina kukanganiswa. Mhando dzinopararira dzinojairira kushomeka kweoksijeni dzinogona kuoneka (semuenzaniso, barbels uye perch zvinogona kubvisa salmon uye trout).

Kana eutrophication ichinyanya kutaurwa, nzvimbo isina okisijeni inogona kugadzirwa pasi perwizi kana mugungwa imomo mvura yakanyanyisa kukobvu, yakasviba uye inotonhora uye isingatenderi kukura kwealki kana mhuka.

Zvinokonzera eutrophication yemvura

Eutrophication yemvura inogona kuitika nenzira dzakasiyana, zvese zvakasikwa uye nevanhu. Dzinenge dzese zviitiko zvekutemwa kwemvura pasi rese zvinokonzerwa nezviitiko zvevanhu. Izvi ndizvo zvikonzero zvikuru:

Zvekurima

Kunyanya kushandisa nitrogen mafetiraiza

Mukurima zvinoshandiswa nitrogen mafetiraiza kuita fetereza zvirimwa. Aya mafetiraiza anonyura nepasi uye anosvika munzizi uye pasi pevhu, zvichikonzera kuwedzerwa kwehutano kumvura uye nekukonzeresa kuuraya.

Mhando ye eutrophication inogadzirwa nezvekurima yakanyatsopararira, nekuti kusangana kwayo kwakapararira munzvimbo zhinji uye kwete ese akafanana.

Kuchengeta mombe

madonhwe ezvipfuyo anogona kukonzera eutrophication

Madonhwe emhuka akapfuma mune zvinovaka muviri, kunyanya nitrogen (ammonia) inoshandiswa nemiti kukura. Kana tsvina yemhuka dzemombe dzikasanyatsotarisirwa, dzinogona kupedzisira dzave kusvibisa mvura dziri pedyo.

Kazhinji kuburitsa kana kusvibiswa kwemvura padyo nenzvimbo dzezvipfuyo kuitika panguva yakakodzera uye haibudisi mvura zvachose.

Marara emuguta

phosphate detergents inopa yakawedzera zvinovaka muviri kune algae

Iyo tsvina yemadhorobha inogona kukonzeresa eutrophication yemvura iri phosphate sipo. Phosphorus ndeimwe yezvakakosha zvinovaka muviri kuzvirimwa, saka kana tikawedzera yakawanda phosphorus kumvura, zvirimwa zvinowanda zvakanyanya uye zvinokonzeresa eutrophication.

Maindasitiri chiitiko

maindasitiri zvakare anogadzira nitrogenous kubuda

Maindasitiri chiitiko chinogona zvakare kuve sosi yezvinovaka zvinogona gadzira chaiwo masosi eutrophication. Muchiitiko cheindasitiri, zvese nitrogenous uye phosphate zvigadzirwa zvinogona kuburitswa, pakati pezvimwe zvakawanda zvine chepfu.

Kunge eutrophication inokonzerwa nemarara emumaguta, inonyanya kubata nguva, ichikanganisa nzvimbo dzakati nemasimba makuru pazvinoitika.

Kushatiswa kwemuchadenga

rwizi rwakakwenenzverwa

Haasi ese emhepo inokanganisa gasi anokwanisa kukonzera eutrophication mumvura. Nekudaro, ivo vanoita izvo zvinoburitsa zve nitrogen oxides nesarufa izvo zvinoita mumhepo uye zvinogadzira acid mvura.

30% yenitrogen inosvika mumakungwa inozviita nenzira yemuchadenga.

Basa remasango

manejimendi masango manejimendi anogona kutungamira kune eutrophication

Kana zvisaririra zvesango zvikasiiwa mumvura, kana zvashatiswa zvinopa iyo nitrogen yese uye nemimwe miriwo yaive nemuti. Zvekare iko kwekuwedzera kupihwa kwehutano kunogadzira eutrophication.

Eutrophication yemvura idambudziko repasirese rinobata kwese matsime emvura yakachena. Iri idambudziko rinofanirwa kugadziriswa nekukurumidza sezvazvinogona, nekuti nekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze kusanaya kwemvura kunowedzera uye isu tinofanirwa kuchengetedza zvese zviwanikwa zvemvura yakachena pasi rino.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako