Conductive uye insulating zvinhu

zvinhu zvinofambisa magetsi

ari conductive uye insulating zvinhu vanoiswa mumapoka maererano nemaitiro avo maererano nemagetsi. Kune avo vanokwanisa kuitisa magetsi uye vamwe izvo, pane zvinopesana, hazvigone kudaro. Izvi zvinhu zvine maitiro akasiyana uye anoshandiswa muzvikamu zvakasiyana zveindasitiri uye kumba.

Muchikamu chino tichakuudza zvese zvaunoda kuziva nezve conductive uye insulating zvinhu uye kuti chimwe nechimwe chazvo ndechei.

Conductive uye insulating zvinhu

conductive uye insulating zvinhu

Zvishandiso zvinogona kukamurwa kuita mapoka maviri akafara: conductors uye insulators. Zvingava zvakarurama zvikuru kuzvitsanangura semakondakita akanaka uye makondakita akaipa, zvichienderana nokuti chinhu chimwe nechimwe chinorerutsa here kana kuti chinotadzisa kutyaira. Kupatsanurwa uku kunokanganisa kana kupisa kwemafuta (kureva kupisa) kana kufambiswa kwemagetsi (kureva kuyerera kwezvino).

Kuti chinhu chinofambisa magetsi here kana kuti kwete zvinoenderana nekuti maerekitironi anogona kupfuura nepairi nyore here. Mapurotoni haafambe nekuti, nyangwe achitakura chaji yemagetsi, anobatana nemamwe mapurotoni nemanyuturoni ari mukati memwoyo. Valence maerekitironi akafanana exoplanets inotenderera nyeredzi. Vanokwezvwa zvakakwana kuti vagare panzvimbo, asi Hazviwanzotora simba rakawanda kuvabvisa panzvimbo.

Masimbi anorasika nyore uye anowana maerekitironi, saka anotonga rondedzero yemakondakita. Organic mamorekuru anowanzo insulators, pamwe nekuti anobatwa pamwechete ne covalent zvisungo (akajairika maerekitironi), asiwo nekuti hydrogen zvisungo anobatsira kudzikamisa mamorekuru akawanda. Zvishandiso zvizhinji hazvisi ma conductor akanaka kana ma insulators akanaka. Havafambisi magetsi nyore nyore, asi nesimba rakakwana, maerekitironi anofamba.

Zvimwe zvinodzivirira zvinhu zvinowanikwa mune yakachena mamiriro, asi vanobata kana kuita kana vakaiswa zvidiki zvechimwe chinhu kana vaine tsvina. Semuenzaniso, maceramics mazhinji akanakisa insulators, asi kana ukaashandura, unogona kuwana ma superconductors. Mvura yakachena insulator, asi mvura yakasviba haina conduction, nepo mvura yemunyu ine maion anoyangarara akasununguka anoita zvakanaka.

Chii chinonzi conductive material?

conductive uye insulating zvinhu

Makonduki ndizvo izvo zvinhu zvinobvumira maerekitironi kuyerera zvakasununguka pakati pezvikamu. Zvinhu zvakaitwa neconductive materials zvinobvumira kutamiswa kwechaji munzvimbo yese yechinhu. Kana chaji ichiendeswa kune chimwe chinhu pane imwe nzvimbo, inokurumidza kugoverwa pamusoro pechiso chese chechinhu chacho.

Kugoverwa kwechaji mhedzisiro yekufamba kwema electrons. Conductive zvinhu zvinobvumira maerekitironi kutakurwa kubva pane chimwe chikamu kuenda kune chimwe nekuti chinhu chinochajiwa chinogara chichigovera chaji yacho kusvika simba rekusembura pakati pemaerekitironi akawandisa radzikiswa. Nenzira iyi, kana conductor akachajiswa akasangana nechimwe chinhu, conductor anogona kutoendesa chaji yayo kune icho chinhu.

Charge transfer pakati pezvinhu zvinowanzoitika kana chinhu chechipiri chakaitwa ne conductive material. Maconductor anobvumira kutamiswa kwechaji kuburikidza nekufamba kwemahara kwemaerekitironi.

Chii chinonzi semiconductor zvinhu?

simbi

Pakati pezvinhu zvinoitisa tinowana zvinhu zvine basa rimwechete asi izvo zvinogona kuita se insulators, kunyangwe izvi zvinoenderana nezvakati wandei. Zvinhu izvi ndezvi:

  • munda wemagetsi
  • magnetic field
  • dzvinyiriro
  • chiitiko radiation
  • kupisa kwenzvimbo yako

Iyo inonyanya kushandiswa semiconductor zvinhu ari silicon, germanium uye nguva pfupi yapfuura sarufa yakashandiswa semiconductor zvinhu.

Chii chinonzi superconducting material?

Ichi chinyorwa chinonakidza nekuti chine hunyanzvi hwekuzvarwa nacho icho chinhu chinofanira kuitisa magetsi ikozvino, asi pasi pemamiriro akakodzera, pasina kupokana kana kurasikirwa kwesimba.

Kazhinji, iyo resistivity yesimbi conductors inoderera nekuderera kwekushisa. Kana kupisa kwakanyanya kunosvika, kushorwa kweiyo superconductor kunodonha zvakanyanya, asi kunovimbisa kuti simba riri mukati rinoramba richiyerera, kunyangwe pasina simba. Superconductivity inogadzirwa.

Inoitika mumhando dzakasiyana-siyana dzezvinhu, zvinosanganisira alloys akareruka senge tin kana aruminiyamu asingaratidzi kuramba kwemagetsi, nokudaro kudzivirira izvo zvinhu kuti zvipinde mudura rayo. Inova iyo Meissner mhedzisiro, inobvumira kuti zvinhu zvidzorerwe, zvirambe zvichiyangarara.

Chii chinonzi insulating material

Kusiyana nemaconductors, ma insulators zvinhu zvinodzivirira kuyerera kwemahara kwemaerekitironi kubva paatomu kuenda kuatomu uye kubva kumorekuru kuenda kumorekuru. Kana mutoro wacho uchiendeswa kune imwe nzvimbo kune imwe nzvimbo, mutoro wakawandisa unoramba uri panzvimbo yepakutanga yemutoro. Insulating particles haibvumiri kuyerera kwemahara kwemaerekitironi, saka kubhadharisa hakuwanzo kugovaniswa zvakaenzana pamusoro peiyo insulating zvinhu.

Kunyange zvazvo insulators isingabatsiri kune kutamisa kuchaja, kuita basa rakakosha mukuyedza kwe electrostatic uye kuratidzira. Conductive zvinhu zvinowanzoiswa pane insulating zvinhu. Uku kurongeka kwemakondukita ari pamusoro peiyo insulator inodzivirira kutamiswa kwechaji kubva kune conductive chinhu kuenda kune yakapoteredza, kudzivirira tsaona dzakadai semapfupi maseketi kana electrocution. Urongwa uhwu hunotibvumira kuti tishandise chinhu chinoitisa pasina kuchibata.

Saka isu tinogona kutaura kuti iyo insulating zvinhu inoshanda sechibatiso che conductor pamusoro peiyo mobile lab tafura. Semuenzaniso, kana aluminium soda inogona kushandiswa kurodha zviedzo, gaba rinofanira kuiswa pamusoro pekapu yepurasitiki. Girazi rinoshanda sechidziviriro, kudzivirira kuti soda irege kubuda.

Mienzaniso Yezvinoita uye Inodzivirira Zvishandiso

Mienzaniso yezvinhu conductive zvinosanganisira zvinotevera:

  • silver
  • mhangura
  • ndarama
  • aluminium
  • hierro
  • simbi
  • ndarira
  • ndarira
  • nemekiyuri
  • girafu
  • mvura yegungwa
  • kongiri

Mienzaniso yezvigadzirwa zve insulating zvinosanganisira zvinotevera:

  • magirazi
  • rubha
  • petroleum
  • asphalt
  • Washington City Offices
  • porcelain
  • zvedongo
  • quartz
  • donje (yakaoma)
  • bepa (yakaoma)
  • huni yakaoma)
  • plastiki
  • mhepo
  • diamond
  • mvura yakachena
  • eraser

Kupatsanurwa kwezvinhu muzvikamu zvema conductor uye insulators chimwe chinhu chechikamu chekugadzira. Zvinonyanya kukodzera kuisa zvinyorwa pane imwe nzvimbo pamwe chete nekuenderera mberi.

Izvo zvinofanirwa kunzwisiswa kuti hazvisi zvese zvinoitisa zvinhu zvine maitiro akafanana, uye kwete ese insulators anopesana zvakaenzana nekufamba kwemaerekitironi. Conductivity inofananidzwa nekujeka kwezvimwe zvinhu kuti zvivheneke.: Zvishandiso zvino "pfuura" mwenje zviri nyore zvinonzi "pachena", nepo izvo zvisinga "pfuura" zviri nyore zvinonzi "opaque". Zvisinei, hazvisi zvinhu zvose zvakajeka zvine zvakafanana optical conductivity. Zvimwe chetezvo zvinoenda kune maconductor emagetsi, mamwe ari nani pane mamwe.

Avo vane high conductivity, vanozivikanwa se superconductors, vanoiswa kune imwe mugumo uye pasi conductivity zvinhu zvinoiswa kune imwe mugumo. Sezvauri kuona pamusoro, iyo simbi ichaiswa padyo neakanyanya conductive magumo, nepo girazi richaiswa kune rumwe rutivi rwekuenderera mberi. Iko conductivity yesimbi inogona kuva trillion yakapetwa kaviri yegirazi.

Tembiricha inokanganisawo conductivity. Sezvo tembiricha inowedzera, maatomu nemaerekitironi zvinowana simba. Mamwe ma insulators, akadai segirazi, haaite maconductor kana kuchitonhora, asi achiri maconductor akanaka kana kuchipisa. Masimbi mazhinji maconductor ari nani.. Vanobvumira kutonhora uye kushata maconductor kana kuchipisa. Mamwe maconductor akanaka akawanikwa mune superconductors pane tembiricha yakaderera kwazvo.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve conductive uye insulating zvinhu.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako