Chondrichthyes

Chondrichthyes

ari Chondrichthyes (Chondrichthyans), inonziwo cartilaginous hove, iboka rezvipembenene zvekare zvekare zvemumvura. Kunyange zvazvo dzisina kuwanda kana kuti dzakasiyana-siyana sehove dzemabhonzo, kuchinjika kwadzo, kushambira kwetsandanyama, nhengo dzinonzwa, uye miitiro ine simba yokudyisa uye shaya zvinoratidza kuti dzakapiwa chimiro chakasimba chezvakatipoteredza munzvimbo yadzinogara.

Muchikamu chino tichakuudza zvese zvaunoda kuziva nezveChondrichthyes, maitiro avo uye biology.

Hunhu hunokosha hweChondrichthyes

kuberekana kwehove dzecartilaginous

Kune marudzi maviri ehove dzecartilaginous. Zvadaro, tichatsanangura maitiro ayo makuru:

Elasmobranchs

Sharki nemwaranzi ndezveboka iri remhuka. Mamwe acho imhuka dzinodya nyama, dzinotsvaga mhuka dzadzo kuburikidza nenhengo dzadzo dzinonhuwa nekuda kwekusakura kwavo kwekuona. Parizvino, kune anopfuura mazana mana emarudzi e shark mu400 mirairo uye anenge mazana mashanu emarudzi emwaranzi mune 8 mirairo. Kana ari shark, mazhinji ane zvinotevera maitiro:

  • Muviri: Muviri wakaita semupini nechiso chakanongedza nedumbu pamberi. Muswe wemuviri une muswe wakavharika usina kujairika, ndiko kuti, kune maviri akasiyana maumbirwo uye zvimiro zvemashizha, imwe yacho ine magumo emuzongoza, uye yekumberi ine pectoral fins, peya yepelvic fins. , uye miviri miviri. odd zvimbi. Muvarume, zvimbi zvepelvic zvakambogadziridzwa senhengo dzepabonde dzekusangana uye dzinonzi glycoptera, pteropods, kana genus.
  • Kuona, ganda uye nhengo dzekugamuchira: maererano nemuromo, vane yunifomu, ventral uye anterior mhino. Maziso haana zvivharo, kunyange zvazvo mamwe marudzi ane nictitating membranes, ane stoma kuseri kweziso rimwe nerimwe. Ganda racho rakaomarara uye mune mamwe marudzi rakafanana nesandpaper, rine zvikero zvakaita seplate, zvinonziwo dermal scales, izvo zvakarongwa nenzira yekuderedza kusagadzikana uye kutarisana neshure. Vane neuromas mukati memiviri yavo nemisoro, izvo zvinonyanya kunzwisiswa zvinogamuchira kune vibrations uye mafungu emvura. Vanewo mareceptor anokosha anogona kuona mhuka kuburikidza nemunda wemagetsi wavanobudisa, iwo Lorenzini blisters mumusoro.
  • Mazino: Mazino haasanganisi nejaya rezasi, kune mitsara miviri, mutsara wekupedzisira unotsiva mazino asipo mumutsara wekutanga, saka mazino matsva anogona kugara achikura. Zvichienderana nemhando, idzi dzinogona kunge dzine serrated chimiro chekucheka chikafu, chakapinza uye chine basa rinobata, kana iri yemarudzi ane mitsetse, vane mazino akati sandara anogona kukweshwa pamusoro.
  • Mabhonzo uye Kutuhwina: Ane mineralized cartilage mapfupa, kwete semabhonzo sedzimwe hove. Zvakare, havana dundira rekushambira, izvo zvinoita kuti vagare vachituhwina kana kugara pasi, zvikasadaro vanonyura. Kune rumwe rutivi, vane chiropa chikuru, chine lipids (squalene), iyo inodzivirirawo kuti irege kunyura.

Holocephalos

Mukati meChondrichthyes tinowana iri boka rinosanganisira chimera. Boka diki iri rinoumbwa nemhando 47 nhasi. Anatomically ine musanganiswa weelasmobranch uye bony hove mavara:

  • Mutumbi: Vane chimiro chinoshamisa kwazvo, muviri wavo wakareba uye misoro yavo yakabuda, vane chimiro chekare chinogona kutsigira hadzi panguva yekusangana. Mhino yayo yakaita setsuro uye muswe wayo wakaita setyava.
  • Shaya nemeno: Havana mazino, asi pane yakafara, mahwendefa akatsetseka. Rushaya rwepamusoro rwakanyatsobatanidzwa nedehenya, kusiyana nemamwe, apa ndipo panobva zita rayo (holo = zvose, zvose uye cephalo = musoro).
  • Size: Vanogona kusvika mamita maviri kureba.
  • kudzivirira: Muzongoza wayo une muzongoza une chepfu.
  • Chikafu: Kudya kwavo kunobva pa<em>crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, hove duku, ne<em>algae, zvinova zvakasanganiswa zvekudya izvo zvavanokuya pakudyisa.

Kushambira kweChondrichthyes

chondrichthyans

Elasmobranchs ine dermal scales, iyo inovabvumira kuderedza mhirizhonga pakushambira. Ukuwo, pamwe chete nechiropa chavo chine lipid, kugona kwavo kumedza mweya, uye zvimbi zvavo, ivo vanoshambira vakanakisa uye izvi zvinogadziriswa zvinovatendera kuti vagare mumvura. Zvimbi zvisinganzwisisike zvinogona kuita kuti usvetuke, uye kunyange zvimbi zvinogona kukudzora. Kune rimwe divi, bapiro rekumashure rinogona kudzora kusundira uye kugadzira simba rekumisa nekuda kwechimiro chayo chisina kujairika.

Manta mwaranzi inochinjirwa kuhupenyu pasi pemvura, muviri wakati sandara, une zvimbi zveunifomu zvinokura uye zvinobatana nemusoro, zvichiita semapapiro pakutuhwina. Mazino avo akati sandara, anokwanisa kukwenya nzvimbo uye kukuya zvokudya, zvinowanzova crustaceans, mollusks nehove duku.

Miswe yadzo yakaita setyava, ine musana mumwe chete kana kupfuura pamagumo, ayo akabatana nematumbu ane chepfu emamwe marudzi. Vanewo nhengo dzemagetsi kumativi ose emisoro yavo, izvo zvinogona kuburitsa magetsi uye kushamisa mhuka dzavo kana zvikara.

Kuberekerwa

Chondrichthyes evolution

Cartilaginous hove dzine mukati mefetiraiza uye dzakasiyana nzira dzekubereka dzatichaona pazasi:

  • Oviparous: Vanokandira mazai akazara yolk pakarepo mushure mekusangana. Mashaki mazhinji nemwaranzi zvinokandira mazai mubhokisi rekeratinous. Tendril-like filaments inoumba kumagumo kwesaga, iyo inoshandiswa kunamatira kune chinhu chekutanga chakasimba chavanobata. Embryos inogona kuumba mumwedzi mitanhatu kusvika pamakore maviri. Kazhinji chimiro ichi chinoitika mudiki, mhando dzebenthic, dzinogona kukandira kusvika mazai zana.
  • Viviparous: Vachagadzira placenta chaiyo iyo embryo inogona kudya. Iyi nzira yekubereka yakasimudzira kubudirira kwavo kwekushanduka-shanduka muboka iri. Inoitika munenge 60% yehove dzecartilaginous uye marudzi makuru anoshanda.
  • Oviviparous: vanochengeta embryo mu fallopian chubhu panguva yekukura kwe embryo uye vanodya payolk sac yayo kusvika pakuzvarwa. Uyezve, inopa mazai nemhando dzakasiyana dzezvokudya, zvakadai se lecithin, apo embryo inodya pazai rezai; chikafu chenyama, apo imwe kana mamwe embryos anokurudzirwa nemvura (tissue nutrition) inogadzirwa nevilli iri mukati memukati mechibereko. Nekune rimwe divi, kune mazai, ndiko kuti, "embryos" dzinodya mazai anenge asangana kana ari muchibereko. Pakupedzisira, kune maoleander kana cannibalism mudumbu.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezveChondrichthyes uye maitiro avo.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
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