Chii chinonzi kupisa kwemagetsi

hunhu hwezvirimwa

Kune nzira dzakawanda dzekugadzira simba zvichienderana nerudzi rwemafuta atinoshandisa uye nenzvimbo kana nzira yazvinoshandiswa nayo. Zvigadzirwa zvemagetsi zvinopisa zvinodaidzwa kunzi magetsi e thermoelectric uye zvinoshandisa mafosili kugadzira magetsi. Vanhu vazhinji havazive zvakanaka chii chinonzi thermal power plant.

Naizvozvo, isu tiri kuzotsaurira ichi chinyorwa kukuudza kuti chii chinonzi thermal power plant, ndezvipi zvakaita uye nemagetsi avanogadzira.

Chii chinonzi kupisa kwemagetsi

chii chinonzi thermal power plant

Chaizvoizvo magetsi emagetsi emagetsi, anozivikanwawo seakajairwa thermoelectric zvinomera, shandisa zvisaririra mafuta (gasi rechisiki, marasha kana mafuta emafuta) kuburitsa magetsi kuburikidza nemhepo inopisa yemvura. Izwi rekuti "zvakajairika" rinoshandiswa kusiyanisa kubva kune mamwe magetsi emagetsi, senge akabatanidzwa kutenderera kana magetsi enyukireya. Chinyakare magetsi ekutsva emagetsi anogadzirwa nezvinhu zvakawanda zvinogona kushandura mafuta emagetsi kuita magetsi. Zvikamu zvaro zvikuru ndezvi:

  • Bhaira: Nzvimbo inoshandura mvura kuita chiutsi kuburikidza nekupisa kwemafuta. Mukuita uku, kemikari simba inoshandurwa kuita simba remafuta
  • Coils: pombi inotenderera mvura uye inoshanduka kuita chiutsi. Pakati pavo, kupisa kupisa kunoitika pakati peiyo flue gasi nemvura.
  • Steam turbine: Muchina unounganidza mhute yemvura, nekuda kweyakaomesesa sisitimu yekumanikidza uye tembiricha, iyo axis inopfuura napo inofamba. Rudzi urwu rwe turbine runowanzove nemitumbi yakati wandei, yakanyanya kumanikidza, yepakati kumanikidza uye yakaderera kumanikidza kuti inyatsoita iro mvura mhute.
  • Jenareta: Muchina unounganidza simba remuchina rinogadzirwa kuburikidza nemubato we turbine uye woishandura kuita simba remagetsi kuburikidza nemagetsi emagetsi induction. Simba rekushandisa rinoshandura simba remuchina re shaft kuita nhanho-nhatu dzinochinjika dzazvino. Iyo jenareta yakabatana nemiseve inopfuura nemitumbi yakasiyana.

Kushanda kwemafuta emagetsi

Thermal Simba Kudyara

Mune echinyakare simba rinopisa simba, mafuta anopiswa mune bhaira kuburitsa inopisa simba kupisa mvura, iyo inoshandurwa kuita chiutsi pakanyanya kumanikidza. Mhepo iyi inozoshandura turbine hombe, inoshandura simba remafuta kuita simba remagetsi, iro Inobva yashandurwa kuita simba remagetsi mune imwe alternator. Iyo magetsi inopfuura nepakati peshanduko inowedzera simba rayo uye ichibvumidza kuti ipfuudzwe, nokudaro ichideredza kurasikirwa nekuda kweiyo Joule mhedzisiro. Mhepo inosiya turbine inotumirwa kune condenser, uko inoshandurwa kuita mvura ndokudzoserwa kune bhaira kuti itange iyo nyowani kutenderera yekugadzira steam.

Zvisinei nemafuta aunoshandisa, mashandiro echinyakare emagetsi emagetsi magetsi akafanana. Nekudaro, pane misiyano pakati pekunyepedzera kwemafuta uye dhiraini yekupisa dhizaini.

Naizvozvo, kana gwenya remagetsi richifamba pamarasha, mafuta anofanirwa kupwanyirwa zvisati zvaitika. Muchirimwa chemafuta mafuta anopiswa, nepo mugasi gasi mafuta anosvika akananga kuburikidza nepombi, saka hapana chikonzero chekuchengetedza. Muchiitiko chemudziyo unovhengana, kurapwa kunoenderana kunoiswa kune wega mafuta.

Zvinokanganisa nharaunda

chii chinonzi thermal uye thermoelectric plant

Chinyakare kupisa simba masisitimu anokanganisa nharaunda munzira mbiri huru: kuburitsa tsvina mumhepo uye kuburikidza nekupisa kupisa. Muchiitiko chekutanga, kupisa kwemafuta kuchaburitsa zvidimbu zvinopedzisira zvapinda mumhepo, zvinogona kukuvadza nharaunda yePasi. Neichi chikonzero, idzi mhando dzezvirimwa dzine marefu chimney ayo dzinogona kumwaya aya matunhu uye munzvimbo dzawo kudzikisira kukanganisa kwadzo pamhepo. Pamusoro pezvo, echinyakare magetsi ekutsvaira magetsi anewo mafirita ezviwanikwa, ayo anogona kuteya mazhinji acho nekuvatadzisa kumhanya panze.

Muchiitiko chekuchinjisa kupisa, yakavhurika kutenderera magetsi magetsi inogona kukonzera nzizi nemakungwa kupisa. Neraki, iyi mhedzisiro inogona kugadziriswa nekushandisa iyo firiji system kutonhodza mvura kune tembiricha inokodzera nharaunda.

Magetsi emagetsi anopisa anogadzira zvakasiyana zvine njodzi zvine chekuita nemuviri uye zvemakemikari zvinosvibisa hutano hwevanhu. Migumisiro yakaipa pamuviri wemunhu inoratidzwa mune pfupi, yepakati nepakati yakareba, kusimudzira nekusunungura mhedzisiro yezvakasvibisa zvagara zviripo. Iko kukanganisa kwakashata pahutano hwevanhu kunogona kusanganisira huwandu hwakawanda hwezvirwere, kubva kune hunyoro kusvika kune hwakaoma uye hunotyisidzira mamiriro. Izvi ndizvo zvakanyanya kusvibisa:

  • Zvinosvibisa panyama: Iyo acoustic inosvibisa inokonzerwa neruzha rwunogadzirwa nemashandiro inogona kukonzera shanduko mumuviri wemunhu, zvinova zvechipiri pakukanganisa kwekurara-kumuka kwehupenyu mutinhimira. Electromagnetic kusvibisa, ndiko kuti, remagetsi mwaranzi inogadzirwa nekuwana nekuparadzira magetsi, kazhinji inogadzira shanduko mune yekutya uye yemoyo masisitimu.
  • Chemical zvinosvibisa: CO2, CO, SO2, zvidimbu, ozone inopisa, inowedzera huwandu hwezvirwere zvekufema uye zvemwoyo, uye inoderedza masimba edu ekudzivirira immune, makemikari ane ngozi (kubva arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, benzene , formaldehyde, naphthalene, toluene uye pyrene. Kunyange zviripo mumatanho, izvo zvinhu zvine njodzi nekuti zvinogona kukonzera zvakakomba uye zvisingaperi hosha kune vanhu vakafumuka. Matambudziko ekubereka uye nenjodzi yakawedzera yekenza) uye zvinhu zvine radioactive.

Steam simba chirimwa

Magetsi emagetsi anoshandiswa nekushandiswa kwemvura kana imwe mvura, iri muzvikamu zviviri zvakasiyana mukutenderera kwebasa, kazhinji muchimiro chemhepo uye mvura. Mumakore achangopfuura, tekinoroji yepamusoro yakavewo inozivikanwa, iyo isingatungamire kune inonzi pachinhanho chikamu, icho chaive chimiro cheiyi maficha munguva yakapfuura.

Aya magetsi emagetsi anopisa anogona kuganhurwa muzvikamu zvinoverengeka: tambo dzemagetsi, majenareta emvura, ma turbine emagetsi uye macondens. Kunyangwe iyo tsananguro yesimba remagetsi rinopisa zvakanyanya, dzakasiyana mhando dzekupisa dzinotenderera dzinogona kucherechedzwa zvinosangana nezvinodiwa izvis, kunyanya akajairika ari iwo Rankine kutenderera uye iyo Hirn kutenderera.

Usati wapinda mubhailer, iyo yekudyisa mvura inoenda kuburikidza neye preheating uye yekumanikidza nhanho. Muchokwadi, kana uchipinda muchibhaira, pane akati wandei ekuunganidzira kupisa, ndiko kuti, zvinopisa zvinopisa, umo hutsi hwakawedzeredzwa zvishoma kana kunyatsopisa mvura inoshanda. Izvi zvinobvumira tembiricha dzakakwira kuti dzipinde jenareta yemhepo, nokudaro kuwedzera kushanda kwemuti.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu iwe unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve chii chiri chakapisa simba chirimwa uye nehunhu hwayo.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako