Nyukireya mwaranzi

magetsi enyukireya

Mumunda wesimba renyukireya, Nyukireya mwaranzi. Iyo inozivikanwa zvakare nezita rekuti radioactivity. Iko kubuda kwekuda kwezvimedu kana radiation kana zvese panguva imwe chete. Izvi zvidimbu nemwaranzi zvinobva mukuparara kweimwe nuclide inozvigadzira. Chinangwa chesimba renyukireya ndechekuparadzanisa mamiriro emukati emaatomu kuti agadzire simba kuburikidza neyakaitika fission yenyukireya.

Muchikamu chino tichaenda kukuudza kuti chii chinonzi radiation radiation, hunhu hwayo uye kukosha kwayo.

Mhando huru

nzvimbo dzine njodzi yenyukireya

Radioactivity ndeye kungoerekana kwabuda zvidimbu kana radiation, kana zvese zviri zviviri. Izvi zvidimbu nemwaranzi zvinobva mukuora kwemamwe ma "nuclide" anozvigadzira. Ivo vanoparara nekuda kwegadziriro yezvivakwa zvemukati.

Kuora kwemwaranzi kunoitika mune isina kugadzikana nuclei. Ndokunge, avo vasina yakakwana inosunga simba rekubata nuclei pamwechete. Antoine-Henri Becquerel akawana radiation netsaona. Gare gare, kuburikidza nekuedza kwaBecquerel, Madame Curie vakawana zvimwe zvigadzirwa zvemwaranzi. Kune mhando mbiri dzemagetsi enyukireya: ekugadzira uye echisikigo radioactivity.

Natural radioactivity iradioactivity inoitika mune zvakasikwa nekuda kwecheni yezvisikwa radioactive zvinhu uye zvisiri-zvevanhu masosi. Yakagara iripo mumamiriro ekunze. Natural radioactivity inogona zvakare kuwedzerwa munzira dzinotevera:

  • Zvisikwa zvakasikwa. Semuenzaniso, kuputika kwegomo.
  • Zvikonzero zvisina kunanga zvevanhu. Semuenzaniso, kuchera pasi pevhu kuvaka hwaro hwechivakwa kana kusimudzira simba renyukireya.

Kune rimwe divi, yekugadzira radioactivity ndeye radioactive kana ionizing radiation yemunhu mavambo. Musiyano chete uripo pakati pemasikirwo echisikigo uye nemwaranzi inogadzirwa nevanhu ndiko kunobva Mhedzisiro yemhando mbiri dzemwaranzi dzakafanana. Muenzaniso weyakagadzirwa radioactivity ndeye radioactivity inogadzirwa mumishonga yenyukireya kana nyukireya fission reaction mune nyukireya magetsi zvinomera kuwana simba remagetsi.

Muzviitiko zvese izvi, kunonanga radiation radiation ndeye alpha radiation uye beta kuora kunoumbwa nemagetsi. Kune rimwe divi, isina kunangana ionizing mwaranzi iemagetsi emagetsi mwaranzi, kunge gamma mwaranzi, ayo ari mafotoni. Kana masosi emwenje akagadzirwa nevanhu, akadai seanowanikwa nemwaranzi, achishandiswa kana kuraswa, marara ane radioactive anowanzo gadzirwa.

Mhando dzemagetsi enyukireya

Nyukireya mwaranzi

Kune matatu marudzi emagetsi enyukireya aive akaburitsa: alpha, beta uye gamma mwaranzi. Alpha zvikamu ndeavo vane chaji inobhadharisa, beta zvimedu zvisina kunaka, uye gamma mwaranzi haina kwazvinoreva.

Inogona kutariswa electromagnetic radiation kune gamma radiation uye X-ray. Zvikamu zvinobva kune alpha uye beta radiation zvinoburitswawo. Mhando yega yega yekubuda ine imwe nguva yekupinda mune nyaya uye ionization simba. Isu tinoziva kuti rudzi urwu rwemwaranzi yenyukireya inogona kukonzera kukuvadza kwakakomba kuhupenyu munzira dzakasiyana. Tichaongorora imwe neimwe yemagetsi enyukireya aripo nemhedzisiro yawo:

Alpha nezvimedu

Alpha (α) zvidimbu kana alpha mwaranzi inzira yemhando yepamusoro-simba ionizing chidimbu che radiation. Inenge isingaite kugona kupinda munyama nekuti ihuru. Izvo zvinoumbwa nema proton maviri uye ma neutron maviri, ayo akabatwa pamwechete nemasimba ane simba.

Alpha mwaranzi, nekuda kwemutero wavo wemagetsi, inowirirana zvine mutsindo nenyaya. Ivo vanobatwa nyore neshoko. Vanogona chete kubhururuka masendimita mashoma mudenga. Dzinogona kupinza mukati mekunze kwekunze kweganda remunhu, saka hadzisi kutyisidzira hupenyu kunze kwekunge sosi yacho yafemerwa kana kumedzwa. Mune ino kesi, zvakadaro, kukuvara kwacho kuchakura kupfuura uko kunokonzerwa nechero ipi neipi radiation. Pamiyero yepamusoro, zvese zvinowanzoonekwa zviratidzo zve radiation radiation zvichaonekwa.

Beta zvidimbu

Beta radiation ndiyo fomu yeionizing mwaranzi inoburitswa nedzimwe mhando dzeradioactive nuclei. Zvichienzaniswa nekudyidzana kweAlpha zvidimbu, iko kudyidzana pakati pe beta beta uye chinhu kazhinji zvine huwandu hwakapetwa kakapetwa kagumi uye ionionization inokwana kuita chegumi chimwe. Izvo zvakavharirwa zvizere nemamirimita mashoma ealuminium.

Gamma zvidimbu

Gamma mwaranzi ndiwo magetsi emagetsi anokonzerwa ne radioactivity. Ivo vanodzikamisa iyo nucleus pasina kuchinja kwayo proton zvemukati. Vanopinda zvakadzika kupfuura than radiation, asi vane dhigirii yakaderera yeionization.

Kana mufaro weatomiki waburitsa gamma radiation, huwandu hwayo uye nhamba yeatomu haizochinje. Iwe unozongorasikirwa necimwe chiyero chesimba. Gamma radiation inogona kukonzera kukuvara kwakakomba kune cell nuclei, ndosaka ichishandiswa kutapudza chikafu nemidziyo yekurapa.

Nyukireya mwaranzi mumagetsi zvinomera

redhiyo

Chinzvimbo chemagetsi enyukireya inzvimbo yekumaindasitiri inoshandisa simba renyukireya kugadzira magetsi. Icho chikamu chemhuri yemagetsi emagetsi, izvo zvinoreva kuti inoshandisa kupisa kugadzira magetsi. Uku kupisa kunouya kubva mukukanganiswa kwezvinhu zvakaita seuranium uye plutonium. Iko mashandiro ezvigadzirwa zvemagetsi enyukireya akavakirwa pa iko kushandiswa kwekupisa kutyaira ma turbine kuburikidza nekuita kwemvura mhute, ayo akabatana nemagetsi. Yenyukireya fission reactor inzvimbo iyo inogona kutanga, kuchengetedza uye kudzora fission cheni maitiro, uye ine yakakwana nzira yekubvisa iyo inogadzirwa kupisa. Kuti uwane mhute yemvura, uranium kana plutonium inoshandiswa sehuni. Maitiro acho anogona kurerutswa mumatanho mashanu:

  • Iyo fission yeuranium inoitika mune yenyukireya inogadziridza, ichiburitsa yakawanda simba rekudziya mvura kusvika yapera.
  • Mhepo inonunurwa kune yemagetsi turbine jenareta yakaiswa kuburikidza neiyo steam chiuno.
  • Kamwe ikoko, turbine mashizha anotenderera uye kufambisa jenareta pasi pechiito chemhepo, nekudaro inoshandura michina simba kuita simba remagetsi.
  • Kana mhute yemvura ikapfuura nepakati peturbine, inotumirwa kune condenser, uko inotonhora uye inoshanduka kuita mvura.
  • Shure kwaizvozvo, mvura inoendeswa kunowana chiutsi zvakare, nokudaro ichivhara dunhu remvura.

Iyo uranium fission masara anochengeterwa mukati mefekitori, mune akakosha kongiri madziva e radioactive zvinhu

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve chii chinonzi radiation radiation uye nehunhu hwayo.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako