Francis turbine

Francis turbine

Chimwe chezvinhu chinonyanya kushandiswa pasi rese kuchizvarwa chemagetsi emagetsi magetsi ndiyo Francis turbine. Iyo turbo muchina wakagadzirwa naJames B. Francis uye uyo unoshanda kuburikidza nekuita uye kusanganisa kuyerera. Iwo ma hydraulic turbines anokwanisa kupa akasiyana siyana kusvetuka uye kuyerera mwero uye anoshanda pamatanho anotangira kubva pamamita maviri kusvika mazana emamita mazana.

Muchinyorwa chino tichaudza iwe nezve zvese hunhu uye kukosha kweiyo Francis turbine.

Mhando huru

Francis turbine zvikamu

Rudzi urwu rwe turbine runokwanisa kushanda munzvimbo dzisina kukwana dzakatangira kubva pamamita akati wandei kusvika mazana emamita. Nenzira iyi, yakagadzirirwa kuti igone kushanda mumhando dzakasiyana dzemisoro uye kuyerera. Kutenda kune yakanyanya kushanda gundi iyo yakavakirwa uye nezvinhu zvinoshandiswa kwazviri, uyu modhi ichave imwe yeanonyanya kushandiswa pasi rese. Kushandiswa kwaro kukuru kuri mumunda wemagetsi emagetsi ekugadzirwa kwemagetsi emagetsi.

Hydroelectric energy, sekuziva kwedu, mhando yesimba rinowedzerwazve iro rinoshandisa mvura iri mumidziyo kugadzira magetsi emagetsi. Aya maTurbine akaomarara uye anodhura kugadzira kuisa asi anogona kushanda kwemakumi emakore. Izvi zvinoita kuti kudyara mumutengo wekutanga werudzi urwu rwee turbine kukwire kupfuura mamwe ese. Nekudaro, zvakafanira iyo sezvo yekutanga mari inokwanisa kudzoserwa mumakore mashoma ekutanga. Sezvakaita nephotovoltaic simba matinoshandisa mapaneru ezuva ane avhareji anoshanda hupenyu hwemakore makumi maviri neshanu, tinogona kudzoreredza mari mukati memakore gumi nemashanu ekushandisa.

Iyo Francis turbine inoratidza hydrodynamic dhizaini iyo Inotivimbisa kuita kwakanyanya nekuda kwekuti hapana kana kurasikirwa kwemvura. Ivo vakasimba muchimiro uye vane yakaderera yekuchengetedza mutengo. Iyi ndeimwe yemapoinzi anonyanya kubatsira erudzi urwu rwee turbines sezvo iyo yekuchengetedza iri yakaderera uye chii chinodzora zvakajairika mutengo. Kuiswa kweFrancis turbine ine hurefu hwakakura kupfuura mazana mazana masere haikurudzirwe zvachose nekuti pane misiyano yakawandisa pakukomba. Uye hazvikurudzirwe kumisikidza irori turbine munzvimbo dzine mutsauko mukuru mukuyerera.

Cavitation mune yaFrancis turbine

Simba remagetsi emagetsi

Cavitation chinhu chakakosha icho chatinofanira kudzora nguva dzese. Iyo hydrodynamic mhedzisiro inoitika panogadzirwa hutsi mukati memvura iri kupfuura nemumagetsi. Sezvakaita nemvura, zvinogona kuitika nechero imwe mvura irimo mune yakasviba mamiriro uye kuburikidza iyo yayaita pamauto anopindura mutsauko mukuora mwoyo. Muchiitiko ichi, zvinoitika kana iyo fosi ichipfuura nekumhanya kumhanya kuburikidza nekupinza kwakapinza uye paine kusagadzikana pakati pemvura nekuchengetedzwa kweiyo nguva yeBernoulli.

Zvinogona kuitika kuti kumanikidzwa kwemhute yemvura iri nenzira yekuti mamorekuru anogona kushanduka nekukasika rave mhute uye huwandu hukuru hwemabhuru hunoumbwa. Aya mabhuru anozivikanwa semakomba. Apa ndipo panobva pfungwa yecavitation.

Mabhuru ese aya famba uchienda kunzvimbo dzichibva kune kumanikidza kwakanyanya kuenda kune pane kushomeka kushoma. Munguva yerwendo urwu, mhute inongoerekana yadzokera kune yakasviba nyika. Izvi zvinokonzeresa kuti mabhuru apedzisire ave kupwanya nekushungurudza uye kugadzira nzira yegesi inoburitsa huwandu hwesimba pane yakasimba nzvimbo uye inogona kutsemuka panguva yekurovera.

Zvese izvi zvinoita kuti tiite kuti titarise mukati mekuvhara muFrancis turbine.

Francis turbine zvikamu

Hunhu hweFrancis turbine

Rudzi urwu rwema turbine ane zvikamu zvakasiyana uye imwe neimwe iri mukutarisira kuvimbisa kugadzirwa kwesimba remagetsi emagetsi. Tichaongorora chimwe nechimwe chezvikamu izvi:

  • Spiral chamber: Icho chiri chikamu cheFrancis turbine iyo inoitisa zvakaenzana kugovera iyo fluid panopinda panopinza. Iyi yekuvanda kamuri ine hozhwa chimiro uye zvinokonzerwa nekuti iyo yepakati kumhanyisa kwemvura inofanirwa kuramba yakagara pane yega poindi yayo. Ichi ndicho chikonzero nei ichi chichifanirwa kunge chiri muchimiro chemhepo uye hozhwa. Chikamu chemuchinjikwa chekamuri ino chinogona kuve chemhando dzakasiyana. Kune rimwe divi, rectangular uye kune rimwe denderedzwa, iyo denderedzwa ndiyo inowanzoitika.
  • Mutengesi: Icho chikamu cheiyi turbine iyo inoumbwa neakagadziriswa mashizha. Aya mashizha ane basa rakarongeka. Ivo vanoshanda kuchengetedza chimiro chekamuri rekutenderera ratataura pamusoro uye nekuchipa kuomarara kwakaringana kugona kutsigira iyo hydrodynamic mamiriro ese uye kudzikisira kurasikirwa nemvura.
  • Muparidzi: chikamu ichi chakavakwa nekufambisa gwara vanes. Zvinhu izvi zvinofanirwa kutungamira zvirinani mvura yakanangana nemasaisai maArabu akagadziriswa. Uye zvakare, uyu anogovera anoona nezve kudzora kuyerera kunotenderwa kana uchipfuura neiyo Francis turbine. Aya ndiwo mashandisiro anoita turbine simba kuti igadziriswe zvakanyanya sezvinobvira kune kusiana kwemutoro kwenzvimbo yemagetsi network. Panguva imwecheteyo, inokwanisa kutungamira kuyerera kwemvura kuti ivandudze mashandiro emuchina.
  • Impeller kana rotor: ndiwo moyo weiyo Francis turbine. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti ndiyo nzvimbo inoitika kuchinjaniswa kwesimba pakati pemuchina wese. Simba remvura inowanzoitika panguva yainopfuura nepakati pemvura ihwo huwandu hwesimba reinetic, iro simba rine simba uye rinokwanisa simba zvine chekuita nehurefu. Iyo turbine ine basa rekushandura iri simba kuita simba remagetsi. Iyo impeller ine basa rekufambisa simba iri kuburikidza nemubato kune jenareta yemagetsi uko kushandurwa kwekupedzisira kunoitwa. Inogona kuve nemhando dzakasiyana siyana zvichienderana nenhamba chaiyo yechimurenga muchina wakagadzirirwa.
  • Kubvisa chubhu: Icho chikamu chinobuda mvura irimo muturbine. Basa rechikamu ichi ndere kupa kuenderera kune inoyerera uye kudzoreredza kusvetuka kwakarasika muzvivakwa zviri pamusoro penzvimbo yemvura. Kazhinji, chikamu ichi chakavakirwa muchimiro chekuparadzira kuitira kuti chigadzire chinokwezva icho chinobatsira kudzoreredza chikamu chesimba chisina kuendeswa kune rotor.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve Francis turbine.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako