Mphamvu yamagetsi yaku Spain

Dziko lathu lili ndi mphamvu zamagetsi zamagetsi zambiri, zomwe zapangidwa kale zoposa zaka 100. Chifukwa cha izi, pakadali pano pali njira yayikulu yopangira magetsi.

Mwa mphamvu zowonjezeredwa ku Spain, a hydropower Ndiukadaulo wophatikizidwa kwambiri komanso wokhwima kwambiri, chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito zojambulajambula komanso kukhalapo kwa madamu ambiri.

Mphamvu yamagetsi

Pali mitundu iwiri yamagetsi yopangira magetsi: yoyamba, mbewu zamadzi zomwe zimatenga gawo loyenda mumtsinjewo ndikupita nayo kumtengowo kuti ikavutike kenako abwerera kumtsinje.

Nthawi zambiri, amagwiritsa ntchito magetsi otsika (makamaka ochepera 5 MW) ndikuwerengera 75% ya msika. Amaphatikizapo "ngalande yapakati yothirira", yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito kusalingana kwamadzi m'mitsinje yothirira kupanga magetsi.

Malo opangira phazi la damu ndi omwe, kudzera pakupanga damu kapena kugwiritsa ntchito yomwe ilipo, amatha kuwongolera mayendedwe. Nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi magawo a mphamvu yoposa 5 MW ndipo zikuyimira pafupifupi 20% ya msika ku Spain. Mkati mwawo muli mbewu zopopera kapena zosinthika, zomera zomwe, kuwonjezera pakupanga mphamvu (ma turbine mode), zimatha kukweza madzi posungira kapena mosungira pogwiritsa ntchito magetsi (pumping mode).

Pafupifupi, ku Spain kuli malo osungira okwanira 55.000 hm3, pomwe 40% yamphamvu imeneyi imafanana malo osungira magetsi, umodzi mwamlingo waukulu kwambiri ku Ulaya ndi padziko lonse lapansi.

Kuchepetsa

M'mbuyomu, kusinthika kwa magetsi opangira magetsi ku Spain kwakhala kukukula, m'zaka zaposachedwa kwakhala kukuchepa kwakukulu pantchito yake ku kupanga magetsi kwathunthu, popeza mphamvu zina zowonjezeredwa zayambitsidwa pakuphatikiza kwa magetsi.

Ngakhale, ikupitilizabe kukhala imodzi mwazinthu zabwino kwambiri zomwe zingapitsidwenso pamodzi ndi mphamvu ya mphepo. Mphamvu yamagetsi imakhala ndi mphamvu mdziko lathu la 17.792 MW, izi zikuyimira 19,5% yathunthu, mphamvu yopitilira gasi amaphatikiza mayendedwe kuti, ndi 27.200 MW yonse, ndiye ukadaulo woyamba wopangidwa ndi mphamvu yoikika (24,8% yathunthu), m'malo mwake, mphamvu ya mphepo, ili ndi mphamvu 23.002 MW (22,3%).

Chiyambi cha mphamvu ya biofuel

Mu 2014, zopereka zamagetsi zamagetsi pakupanga magetsi mdziko muno zikuyimira 15,5%, ndi 35.860 GWh, chiwerengerochi chikuyimira kukwera kwa 5,6% kuposa chaka chatha. Ngakhale zabwino khalidwe la magetsi, inali ukadaulo wachinayi pakupanga, kuseri kwa nyukiliya (22%), mphepo (20,3% 9 ndi malasha (16,5%).

Posachedwa, zikuyembekezeka kuti ukadaulowu upitilira kukula pachaka pakati pa 40 mpaka 60 MW, popeza mphamvu zamagetsi zomwe zitha kukhala zachuma zachuma, ndiposa 1 GW.

Catalonia, Galicia ndi Castilla y León ndi magulu odziyimira pawokha omwe ali ndi apamwamba kwambiri kukhazikitsa potency m'gawo lamagetsi, popeza ndiwo madera okhala ndi madzi ambiri ku Spain

Kukula kwaukadaulo

Gawo ndi sitepe, chitukuko chaukadaulo chapangitsa kuti magetsi ochepa azikhala ndi mpikisano wokwanira pamsika wamagetsi, ngakhale izi zimasiyana malinga ndi chomera typology ndi ntchito yoti ichitike. Chomera chamagetsi chimawerengedwa kuti ndi mini-hydro ngati chili ndi mphamvu yochepera 10 MW ndipo chitha kukhala madzi amtsinje kapena pansi pa damu.

Pakadali pano, ma hydroline a hydraulic akupangidwa ndi mphamvu zochepa kuposa zija 10 kW, Izi ndizothandiza kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zamatsenga ndikupanga magetsi mu madera akutali. Turbine imatulutsa magetsi mwachindunji pakusinthana kwamakono ndipo sikutanthauza madzi akugwa, zomangamanga zowonjezerapo kapena kukonzanso kwakukulu.

Lero, chitukuko cha gawo lamagetsi lamagetsi ku Spain cholinga chake ndichokuchita bwino kwambiri, kuti zikwaniritse magwiridwe antchito apano. Malingaliro aperekedwa kwa kukonzanso, kusintha kwamakono, kusintha kapena kukula kwa mbewu zomwe zaikidwa kale.

Spain pakadali pano ili ndi pafupifupi 800 malo opangira magetsi, okhala ndi kukula kosiyanasiyana. Pali mbewu 20 zopitilira 200 MW, zomwe pamodzi zimayimira 50% yamphamvu yonse yamagetsi. Kumbali ina, alipo madamu ang'onoang'ono ambirimbiri ndi mphamvu zosakwana 20 MW, zogawidwa ku Spain konse.

Presa


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