Zomera zapamwamba kwambiri zamagetsi padziko lapansi

Mphamvu yamagetsi yochokera kuzomera zamagetsi ndi gwero loyambanso kukonzanso padziko lapansi. Pakadali pano magetsi omwe adaikidwa amaposa 1.000 GW ndikupanga mu 2014 kudafika 1.437 TWh, yomwe idapanga 14% yamagetsi apadziko lonse lapansi malinga ndi chidziwitso cha International Energy Agency (IEA).

Kuphatikiza apo, malinga ndi kunenedweratu kwa bungwe lomwelo, mphamvu zamagetsi zipitilira kukula pamlingo wofunikira mpaka kuwirikiza kawiri mphamvu zomwe zilipo kupitirira 2.000 GW yamagetsi oyikika mu 2050.

Mphamvu yamagetsi

Mphamvu yamagetsi imakhala ndi zabwino zambiri kuposa magwero ena amagetsi ambiri, kuphatikiza kudalirika kwakukulu, luso kutsimikiziridwa ndi magwiridwe antchito, mitengo yotsika kwambiri yochitira ndi kukonza.

Mphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi ndiyomwe imapanganso magetsi, chifukwa imachulukanso katatu ndi mphepo, yomwe, ndi 350 GW, ndiye gwero lachiwiri. Zopereka zaukadaulo uwu m'zaka zaposachedwa zapanga magetsi ambiri kuposa ena onse mphamvu zowonjezereka pamodzi. Ndipo kuthekera kwakukula kwaukadaulo uku ndikokulira, makamaka ku Africa, Asia ndi Latin America. Mapu amsewu aku IEA amaneneratu kuti kuchuluka kwamagetsi padziko lonse lapansi kudzawirikiza kawiri mpaka pafupifupi 2.000 GW pofika 2050, ndikupanga magetsi padziko lonse opitilira 7.000 TWh.

Kukula kwa magetsi opangira magetsi kumachokera ntchito zazikulu m'maiko omwe akutukuka kumene komanso akutukuka kumene. M'mayiko amenewa, ntchito zazikulu zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi zazikulu ndi zazing'ono zimatha kupititsa patsogolo ntchito zamagetsi zamagetsi, ndikuchepetsa umphawi m'malo ambiri padziko lapansi, pomwe magetsi ndi madzi akumwa sanafikire.

Mphamvu zamagetsi, zopezedwa pogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zamagetsi komanso kutuluka kwa mafunde ndi mathithi, ndi amodzi mwam magwero okonzanso akale ndipo amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi dziko lapansi kuti apeze mphamvu. China lero ndi yomwe imapanga magetsi opitilira magetsi padziko lonse lapansi, ndikutsatidwa ndi Brazil, Canada, United States ndi Russia, mayiko omwe ali ndi magetsi opangira magetsi padziko lapansi.

Chotsatira tiwona top 5 yazomera zamagetsi

Sitima yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagawo atatu

Makina opangira magetsi amenewa amakhala ndi mphamvu ya 22.500 MW. Ili ku Yichang, m'chigawo cha Hubei, ndipo ndi yayikulu kwambiri padziko lapansi. Ndi malo wamba opangira magetsi omwe amagwiritsa ntchito madzi ochokera mumtsinje wa Yangtze.

Ntchito yomanga ntchitoyi idafuna ndalama za 18.000 miliyoni. Ntchito yomanga mega iyi idayamba mu 1993 ndipo idamalizidwa mu 2012. Damu lakhala Kutalika kwa 181 mita ndi mamita 2.335 m'litali, zidachitika ngati gawo la projekiti ya Three Gorges, limodzi ndi malo opangira magetsi opangidwa ndi makina 32 a 700 MW iliyonse, ndi magawo awiri opanga 50 MW. Pakadali pano, kupanga kwa magetsi pachaka kwa fakitoyi kwakhazikitsa mbiri yapadziko lonse mu 2014 ndi 98,8 TWh, ndikuzipatsa magetsi kumadera asanu ndi anayi ndi mizinda iwiri, kuphatikiza Shanghai.

Chomera cha magetsi cha Itaipu

Makina opangira magetsi a Itaipu, okhala ndi mphamvu ya 14.000 MW, ndiye wachiwiri kukula padziko lonse lapansi. Malowa ali mumtsinje wa Paraná, m'malire a Brazil ndi Paraguay. Ndalama zomwe zimapangidwa pomanga chomeracho zinali ma 15.000 miliyoni. Ntchitozo zidayamba mu 1975 ndipo zidamalizidwa mu 1982. Akatswiri opanga mgwirizano wa IECO yochokera ku United States ndi ELC Electroconsult wokhala ku Italy, adamanga, kuyambira pakupanga magetsi kuchokera ku chomera mu Meyi 1984.

Chomera cha magetsi cha Itaipu chimapatsa 17,3% yamagetsi ku Brazil ndi 72,5% yamagetsi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ku Paraguay. Makamaka, ili ndi magawo 20 opangira omwe ali ndi mphamvu ya 700 MW iliyonse.

Sitima yamagetsi yamagetsi ya Xiluodu

malo opangira magetsi

Sitima yamagetsi yamagetsiyi ili pamphepete mwa Mtsinje wa Jinsha, womwe umadutsa Mtsinje wa Yangtze kumtunda kwake, uli pakatikati pa chigawo cha Sichuan, ndiye siteshoni yachiwiri yayikulu kwambiri ku China komanso wachitatu padziko lonse lapansi . Kukhazikika kwa chomera kudafikira 13.860 MW kumapeto kwa 2014 pomwe makina amagetsi omaliza awiri adayikiratu. Ntchitoyi idapangidwa ndi Gulu Lachitatu la Gorges Project ndipo chikuyembekezeka kupanga 64 TWh yamagetsi pachaka zikagwira bwino ntchito.

Ntchitoyi inkafunika ndalama za 5.500 milioni ya euro ndipo ntchito yomanga idayamba mu 2005, kuyambitsa makina oyamba opangira makina mu Julayi 2013. Chomeracho chimakhala ndi damu lotalika kawiri la mita 285,5 kutalika ndi 700 mita mulifupi, ndikupanga posungira kosungira ma cubic metres mamiliyoni 12.670. Zipangizozi, zoperekedwa ndi mainjiniya a Voith, zimakhala ndi ma jenereta opangira ma 18 Francis okhala ndi mphamvu ya 770 MW iliyonse ndi jenereta yotentha ndi mpweya yotulutsa 855,6 MVA.

Malo opangira magetsi a Guri.

Chomera cha Guri, chomwe chimadziwikanso kuti Simón Bolívar chomera chamagetsi, chimawoneka kuti ndi chimodzi mwazikulu kwambiri padziko lapansi, chokhala ndi kuyika mphamvu ya 10.235 MW. Nyumbazi zili mumtsinje wa Caroní, womwe uli kumwera chakum'mawa kwa Venezuela.

Ntchito yomanga ntchitoyi idayamba mu 1963 ndipo idachitika magawo awiri, yoyamba idamalizidwa mu 1978 ndipo yachiwiri idachitika mu 1986. Chomeracho chili ndi magawo 20 obadwira osiyanasiyana pakati pa 130 MW ndi 770 MW. Kampaniyo Alstom idasankhidwa kudzera m'makontrakitala awiri mu 2007 ndi 2009 pakukonzanso ma 400 MW ndi mayunitsi asanu a 630 MW, ndipo Andritz adalandiranso mgwirizano wopereka ma turbine asanu a 770MW Francis mu 2007. Pambuyo pokonzanso zida zopangira, chomeracho chidapeza magetsi kupereka zoposa 12.900 GW / h.

Chomera cha Tucuruí chopangira magetsi

Damu ili kumunsi kwa Mtsinje wa Tocantins, ku Tucuruí, wa State of Pará ku Brazil, lili ngati chomera chachisanu chachikulu chopangira magetsi padziko lapansi ndi 8.370 MW wake. Pulogalamu ya ntchito yomanga. mayunitsi othandizira a 4.000 MW.

Gawo lachiwiri lidawonjezera chomera chatsopano chomwe chidayambitsidwa mu 1998 ndikumaliza kumapeto kwa 2010, momwe kukhazikitsidwa kwa magawo 11 opanga mibadwo yokhala ndi 370 MW iliyonse idachitika. Akatswiri opanga mgwirizano wopangidwa ndi Alstom, GE Hydro, Inepar-Fem ndi Odebrecht Anapereka

zida za gawoli. Pakadali pano, chomeracho chimapereka magetsi ku mzinda wa Belém ndi madera ozungulira.


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