Utsi, ndi chiyani, zotsatira zake komanso momwe ungalimbane nawo

Mzinda Smoggy

Nthawi zambiri timapita mumsewu, ndipo pang'ono kapena pang'ono, titha kuwona mtundu wa utsi mlengalenga pomwe ambiri aife timalakwitsa kuti ndi utsi wonyezimira. Ndi utsi wodziwika bwino kapena utsi wa photochemical.

Utsi sichina koma Kuwonongeka kwa mlengalenga zomwe zimasokoneza thanzi lathu. Chotsatira, ndikufotokozera chomwe utsi ulidi, momwe umapangidwira, zotsatira zake ku chilengedwe ndi thanzi, pakati pazinthu zina zomwe zingakhale zosangalatsa.

Kodi utsi ndi chiyani?

Utsi ndi zotsatira za kuchuluka kwakukulu kwa mpweya, makamaka kuchokera ku utsi woyaka wa malasha, ngakhale ulinso chifukwa cha Kutulutsa mpweya zopangidwa ndi mafakitale kapena mafakitale komanso magalimoto.

Ndiye kuti, utsi ndi mtambo wopangidwa ndi kuipitsa chilengedwe ndipo imalandira dzina ili chifukwa ikufanana ndi mtambo wakuda, mawuwo mu Chingerezi akufuna kupanga nthabwala kuti apereke dzina ladzina la utsi ndipo apanga mawuwo pamodzi utsi (utsi) ndi chifunga (nkhungu).

Kodi utsi wa photochemical umapangidwa bwanji?

Tsopano, kuti ndimvetsetse momwe mtambowu kapena kuipitsidwa kumachitika, ndiyesa kuzifotokoza m'njira yosavuta.

ndi zoipitsa zazikulu zomwe zimatulutsa utsi ndi ma nitrojeni oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitratoacetyl peroxide (PAN), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), mankhwala enaake okhala ndi okosijeni ndi ma hydrocarboni ena osawotchedwa koma otulutsidwa magalimoto monga ndanenera pamwambapa.

Chinthu china chofunikira ndi luz dzuwa popeza imapanga zopitilira muyeso zomwe zimayambitsa njira zopangira mtambo uwu.

Chifukwa cha NO2, nthawi zina imatha kuwoneka ya lalanje ngakhale wabwinobwino ndi mtundu waimvi. Chimodzi mwazinthu zodziwika bwino kwambiri ndi zakumwamba kwa China kapena Japan.

Thambo lalanje ndi NOx ku Japan

Kudzikundikira kwa mpweya wotchulidwa pamwambapa ndi zomwe zimayambitsa kupangidwa kwa "mtambo" wonga utsi ndikuti, ikaphatikizidwa ndi nyengo ya kuthamanga, imayambitsa mpweya wosayenda kupanga nkhungu kuti, m'malo mopangidwa ndi madontho amadzi, wapangidwa ndi mpweya wowonongeka, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti pakhale mpweya woopsa, wokhumudwitsa komanso nthawi zina woopsa.

Zonsezi ndizomwe zimadziwika kuti chithunzi cha photochemical zomwe ndizofala m'mizinda komanso yomwe ndimayang'ana kwambiri m'nkhaniyi, komanso monga chidziwitso chodziwitsa, ndikungonena kuti pali utsi wowopsa kwambiri, ndipo ndi utsi wa sulphurous.

Izi zitha kuchitika ngati mawonekedwe amvula yamvula komanso chifunga.

Zotsatira zachilengedwe

Mwachiwonekere tili ndi mbali imodzi yofunikira zimakhudza malo chifukwa cha zifukwa ziwiri:

  • Kusintha kwanu, popeza zoipitsa m'mlengalenga zimakhudza mwachindunji kapena mwanjira zina momwe chilengedwe chimakhalira.

Kumbali inayi, chifukwa utsi umachepetsa kwambiri kuwonekera.

M'mizinda yokhala ndi utsi wokwanira, mtunda kuchokera masomphenya amachepetsedwa mpaka mamitala ochepa.

Kuphatikiza apo, masomphenya omwe akukambidwa mozama sikuti amangowonekera mopingasa, komanso amatero motsatana, ndikupangitsa kuti kukhale kosatheka kuwona thambo.

Utsi wochulukirapo umatanthauza kuti kulibe mitambo, kulibe mitambo yowala bwino kapena usiku wokhala ndi nyenyezi, chophimba choyera cha imvi kapena lalanje chokha.

  • Mphamvu ina yomwe utsi umayambitsa ndi kusintha kwa nyengo ya malowo.

Zotsatira zake ndi izi:

  • Kutentha kumatuluka ngakhale kuchuluka kwa kunyezimira kwa Dzuwa kumakhala kovuta kwambiri ndi choletsa utsi.

Kutentha komwe kumapangidwa mkati sikutha kutuluka panja chifukwa chakuchulukana kwa mpweya komwe kumayambitsa kutentha.

  • Mvula imasinthidwa popeza zoipitsa ndi tinthu tomwe timayimitsidwa ndi kaboni zimapangitsa kutsika kwa mvula.

Apa mawu akuti kuyera komwe kumaluma mchira wake kukuyenerana bwino popeza ngati tili ndi vuto la utsi sipadzakhala mvula, ndipo popanda mvula kapena mphepo, ndizosatheka kulimbana mwanjira yachilengedwe ndi utsi.

Zotsatira zathanzi

Ndanena kale kuti utsi umapanga chotchinga chovulaza, chokwiyitsa komanso chakupha, tsopano tiwone zomwe zimakhudza thanzi lathu.

  • Anthu onse omwe amakhala mumzinda "wonyansa" amapatsidwa amakhumudwitsa maso ndi dongosolo la kupuma, ndiye kuti pakhosi ndi mphuno.
  • Komabe, ana ndi okalamba ali pachiwopsezo chachikulu ndi sulfure dioxide, carbon monoxide ndi nitrogen dioxide, kuwonjezera pa anthu omwe ali ndi mavuto am'mapapo monga emphysema, mphumu kapena bronchitis kapena anthu omwe ali ndi matenda amtima.
  • Anthu omwe chifuwa atha kuchenjeza kuti ziwonjezeke chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kumeneku, makamaka chilengedwe chikakhala chodzaza kwambiri kapena masiku amvula pomwe zoipitsa zonse zimayikidwa.
  • Zingayambitsenso kupuma pang'ono, zilonda zapakhosi, chifuwa, ndi kuchepa kwamapapu m'mizinda ikuluikulu.
  • Zimatha kuyambitsa kuperewera kwa magazi Chifukwa cha mpweya umodzi wambiri, makamaka carbon monoxide (CO), umalepheretsa kusinthana kwa mpweya m'magazi ndi m'mapapu.
  • Izi sizikutha pano popeza utsi wa photochemical amathanso chifukwa cha kufa msangaM'malo mwake, pali vuto ku likulu la Britain komwe mkati mwa zaka makumi awiri mphambu makumi awiri kudafa anthu ambiri, kukwaniritsa mbiri (ngati ingatchulidwe choncho) yaimfa yoipitsidwa.

Kuyambira 1948 mpaka 1962 anthu pafupifupi 5.500 amwalira ku England chifukwa cha utsi.

Nkhani yowonjezera:
Kuwononga mpweya kumakhudza nzika 8 mwa 10 padziko lapansi

Mkazi wakwiya chifukwa cha utsi

Mizinda yomwe ili ndi utsi wapamwamba kwambiri

Mwachidziwikire fayilo ya mizinda yoyipa kwambiri Ponena za utsi, ndiwo omwe alibe mphepo yamphamvu komanso yamphamvu nthawi zonse, ndiye kuti, omwe ali pafupi ndi gombe, m'zigwa zotsekedwa ... ndi mvula yaying'ono.

Zitsanzo zina za mizindayi ndi:

  • England yomwe tatchulayi, Londres adavutika kwambiri m'mbuyomu chifukwa cha utsi, ndichifukwa chake malamulo ndi machitidwe osiyanasiyana akhala anali kukonza mlengalenga, kupanga zigawo zopanda utsi, zoletsa mafakitale ena komanso kuletsa magalimoto kulowa mtawuni, pakati pazinthu zina.
  • Ndiye tili nacho Los AngelesPopeza ndikupsinjika kozunguliridwa ndi mapiri, chifukwa chake utsi womwe umapangika ndizovuta kuthawa. Osanenapo kuti ndi umodzi mwamizinda yoyipitsa kwambiri ndipo sizingachite zochepetsera kuchuluka kwa kuipitsa kwake ndikupanga utsi.
  • Santiago ndi MexicoAlinso ndi vuto loti kulibe mphepo yamphamvu ndipo ndi mizinda yotsekedwa.

Pokhala m'malo okwera kwambiri, mpweya wozizira umapangitsa kuti utsi wamafotokalase "uzike".

  • Mayiko omwe malasha ndi gwero lofunikira lamphamvu ndipo akutukuka monga China kapena ena Mayiko akum'mawa kwa Europe, utsi udakali vuto lalikulu.

Komabe, lero, mayiko otsogola kwambiri Iwo apita patsogolo kuyeretsa ndi kuwongolera machitidwe a mafuta omwe amapanga "utsi" kapena utsi wowopsawu, chifukwa chake kuchepa kwake kumakhala kochepa.

Chotsatira, ndikusiyirani kanema wokhala ndi zithunzi pomwe imatiwonetsa mzinda wa Beijing, China, wofiira chifukwa cha utsi.

Kulimbana ndi utsi wa photochemical

Pankhondoyi tili ndi mbali zitatu, a Maboma ndi mabungwe akuluakulua nzika komanso chilengedwe.

Choyamba, utsi ukhoza kumenyedwa bwino ndi amayi chilengedweChifukwa cha mvula ndi mphepo, imatsuka ndikukonzanso mpweya wotizungulira.

Pachifukwa ichi, ndizofala kwambiri kuti utsi uwoneke m'malo omwe mulibe mphepo yochepa kapena yopanda mphepo komanso kumene kumagwa mvula yochepa, komanso zowononga kwambiri.

Ngati chilengedwe ndi "mphamvu" yake yokonzanso mpweya chitha kuthana ndi utsi ndikupambana pankhondo, Nanga mbali ziwirizi zikugwira ntchito yanji?

Zosavuta, nthawi zambiri momwe kudzikundikira kwa zoipitsazi ndikupanga utsi kumachitika, ndichifukwa chake chilengedwe sichikhala ndi zida zofunikira kuti athe kuthana ndi kuipitsidwa kotereku.

Ndipo, m'malo awa, pomwe Maboma ndi mabungwe akuluakulu.

Maboma ndi mabungwe oterewa Izi ndizomwe zimapangitsa kuti mizindayo ipitilirabe ndi utsi chifukwa ndizomwe zimaloleza kuipitsa mpweya, zambiri zomwe zimapangidwa ndi mafakitale ndi mafakitale.

Ndiwo nzika kwa ife omwe, popereka mchenga wathu, titha kuthandiza chilengedwe kuthana ndi utsi.

Monga tanenera, chimodzi mwazinthu zazikuluzikulu zomwe zimapangitsa kuti utsi uwoneke ndi utsi wopangidwa ndi magalimoto, njinga zamoto, magalimoto ndi zoyendera wamba.

Ndizachidziwikire kuti mchenga womwe ndikunenawo ndi njira za Pewani kupitiliza kuthandizira pakupanga utsi ndi kuipitsa.

Ndikutanthauza ndendende kulimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito zoyendera pagulu, kubetcherana pamagalimoto amagetsi, ndi zina zambiri. Pazifukwa izi, pali mawu abwino kwambiri omwe amati: "Ganizani padziko lonse lapansi, chitani zinthu kwanuko!

Monga mukuwonera, manja osavuta monga kukwera basi kumathandizira kuti mpweya ukhale wabwino, kwa izi ngati tiwonjezera kukhazikitsidwa kwa malo obiriwira, kaya ndi mapaki, madenga obiriwira kapena minda yowongoka, mizinda imatha kupuma motero ifenso.

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  1.   chiwawa anati

    Ndi chidziwitso chabwino kwambiri padziko lapansi

    1.    Daniel Palomino anati

      Zikomo kwambiri chifukwa cha ndemanga yanu Mafio.

      Zikomo.