Plankton ndi chiyani

plankton pansi pa microscope

Zamoyo zimadyetsa kutsatira thumba lazakudya lomwe limakhazikitsidwa mosiyanasiyana momwe zamoyo ndizomwe zimadya ndipo zina ndizo zomwe zimadyedwa. Pansi paulalo wazakudya zam'madzi ndi plankton. Anthu ambiri sakudziwa plankton ndi chiyani kapena kufunika kwake. Ndiko kuyamba kwa unyolo wa trophic ndipo umapangidwa ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timatha kupanga photosynthesis. Ntchito yake yayikulu ndikutumikira monga chakudya cha zamoyo zambiri zam'madzi. Chifukwa chake, ndikofunikira kwambiri pakukula kwachilengedwe ndi zamoyo zam'madzi.

M'nkhaniyi tikukuwuzani chiyani plankton, kufunikira kwake ndi mawonekedwe ake.

Plankton ndi chiyani

plankton yaying'ono kwambiri

Plankton ali gulu la zolengedwa zomwe zimayandama poyenda mafunde am'nyanja. Mawu akuti plankton amatanthauza woyendayenda kapena woyendayenda. Gulu la zolengedwa ndizosiyana kwambiri, zosiyanasiyana ndipo lili ndi malo okhala madzi abwino komanso madzi am'nyanja. M'madera ena, amatha kufikira anthu mabiliyoni ambiri ndikuwonjezeka m'nyanja zozizira. M'makina ena osasunthika, monga nyanja, mayiwe kapena zotengera zokhala ndi madzi akadali, titha kupezanso plankton.

Kutengera mtundu wa zakudya ndi mtundu wa mawonekedwe, pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya plankton. Tidzagawana pakati pawo:

  • Phytoplankton: Ndi chomera chomera chomwe ntchito zake ndizofanana kwambiri ndi zomera chifukwa zimapeza mphamvu ndi zinthu zina kudzera mu photosynthesis. Imatha kukhala m'madzi osanjikiza omwe amatumiza kuwala, ndiye kuti, m'mbali mwa nyanja kapena madzi momwe imalandira dzuwa. Itha kukhalapo pakuya pafupifupi mita 200, pomwe kuwala kwa dzuwa kumachepa. Phytoplankton iyi imapangidwa makamaka ndi cyanobacteria, diatoms, ndi dinoflagellates.
  • Zojambula: ndi zooplankton yomwe imadya phytoplankton ndi zamoyo zina za gulu lomwelo. Amapangidwa ndi nkhanu, jellyfish, mphutsi za nsomba, ndi zolengedwa zina zazing'ono. Zolengedwa izi zimatha kusiyanitsidwa kutengera nthawi yamoyo. Pali zamoyo zina zomwe zimakhala gawo la plankton m'moyo wake wonse ndipo zimatchedwa holoplanktons. Kumbali inayi, omwe amangokhala gawo la zooplankton munthawi ya moyo wawo (nthawi zambiri ikakhala mphutsi) amadziwika ndi dzina la meroplankton.
  • Mabakiteriya a Plankton: Ndiwo mtundu wa plankton wopangidwa ndi magulu a bakiteriya. Ntchito yake yayikulu ndikuwononga zinyalala ndikuchita gawo lofunikira pakuzungulira kwa kaboni, nayitrogeni, oxygen, phosphorous ndi zinthu zina. Imayesedwanso kudzera pagulu lazakudya.
  • Mavairasi a Planktonic: ndi mavairasi am'madzi. Amapangidwa ndimatenda a bacteriophage komanso ndere zina za eukaryotic. Ntchito yake yayikulu ndikubwezeretsanso michere mu biogeochemical cycle ndikupanga gawo la unyolo wa michere.

Mitundu ya plankton

Plankton

Mitundu yambiri ya plankton ndi yaying'ono kwambiri. Izi zimapangitsa kukhala kosatheka kuwona ndi maso. Kukula kwapakati pazamoyozi kuli pakati pama microns 60 ndi millimeter. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya plankton yomwe imatha kupezeka m'madzi ndi iyi:

  • Akupanga Amayeza pafupifupi ma microns asanu. Ndiwo tizilombo ting'onoting'ono kwambiri, kuphatikizapo mabakiteriya ndi ma flagellate ang'onoang'ono. Flagellates ndi zolengedwa zomwe zili ndi flagella.
  • Nanoplankton: Amayeza pakati pa 5 ndi 60 metres ndipo amapangidwa ndi ma unicellular microalgae, monga ma diatom ang'ono ndi coccolithophores.
  • Microplankton: Ndi zazikulu, zikufika pakati pa ma microns 60 ndi 1 mm. Apa timapeza tizilombo tating'onoting'ono tating'onoting'ono, mphutsi za mollusk ndi ma copopods.
  • Plankton wapakatikati: diso la munthu limatha kuwona zolengedwa zazikulu. Amayeza pakati pa 1 ndi 5 mm ndipo amapangidwa ndi mphutsi za nsomba.
  • Plankton yayikulu: pakati pa 5 mm ndi 10 cm kukula. Apa pakubwera sargasso, salps ndi jellyfish.
  • Giant plankton: zolengedwa zoposa 10 cm kukula. Tili ndi nsomba zam'madzi pano.

Zamoyo zonse zomwe zimapezeka m'matumba zimakhala ndi matupi osiyanasiyana ndipo zimakwaniritsa zosowa zachilengedwe zomwe zimakhala. Chimodzi mwazosowa zathupi ndikutulutsa madzi kapena kukhuthala kwa madzi. Kwa iwo, malo am'madzi ndi owoneka bwino ndipo ndikofunikira kuthana ndi kukana kuti musunthire m'madzi.

Pali njira zambiri komanso njira zopititsira patsogolo madzi oyandama zitha kuwonjezera mwayi wopulumuka. Kuchulukitsa thupi, kuwonjezera madontho amafuta ku cytoplasm, kubaya zipolopolo, kukhetsa ndi zinthu zina ndi njira zosiyanasiyana ndikusinthira kuti athe kukhala m'malo osiyanasiyana am'madzi ndi amchere. Palinso zolengedwa zina zomwe zimatha kusambira bwino, chifukwa cha flagella ndi zina zamagalimoto, monga zimachitikira ma copepods.

Kukhuthala kwa madzi kumasintha ndikutentha. Ngakhale sitidziwonetsa tokha ndi maso, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timazindikira. M'madzi otentha, mamasukidwe akayendedwe amadzi ndi otsika. Izi zimakhudza kukongola kwa munthuyo. Pachifukwa ichi, ma diatom apanga cyclomorphosis, yomwe imatha kupanga mawonekedwe amthupi osiyanasiyana nthawi yotentha komanso yozizira kuti izolowere kusintha kwa kukhuthala kwamadzi kotentha.

Kufunika kwa moyo

nano aquarium zomera

Anthu nthawi zonse amanena kuti plankton ndichinthu chofunikira kwambiri panyanja iliyonse. Kufunika kwake kumadalira chakudya. Tsamba lazakudya pakati pa opanga, ogula ndi owonongeka limakhazikitsidwa mu biome. Phytoplankton imatha kusintha mphamvu ya dzuwa kukhala mphamvu yokhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi ogula ndikuwononga.

Phytoplankton imadyedwa ndi zooplankton, yomwe imadyedwa ndi nyama zodya nyama ndi omnivores. Izi ndi zolusa za zolengedwa zina ndipo zowola zimadyetsa zakufa. Umu ndi m'mene chakudya chonse chimapangidwira m'malo okhala m'madzi.

Phytoplankton imatenga mpweya wochuluka wambiri kudzera mu photosynthesis ndipo imapereka pafupifupi 50% ya mpweya womwe timapuma mumlengalenga. Mitengo yakufa imapanga dothi, ikangomangidwa, imatulutsa mafuta omwe amafunidwa kwambiri.

Monga mukuwonera, nthawi zina chinthu chofunikira kwambiri chimakhala chaching'ono kwambiri. Poterepa, plankton ndiye maziko azakudya zam'madzi. Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za plankton, mawonekedwe ake komanso kufunikira kwake.


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