Oligosaccharides

maunyolo amadzimadzi

Lero tikambirana za mutu womwe ukufotokozedwa kwambiri mu biology ndipo ndikofunikira kwambiri. Ndizokhudza kutchfuneralhome. Ndi mamolekyulu omwe amapangidwa ndi zotsalira pakati pa 2 mpaka 10 monosaccharide ndipo amalumikizidwa ndi ma glycosidic bond. Ma oligosaccharides awa amatha kupezeka muzakudya zosiyanasiyana zokhala ndi michere monga tomato, mkaka, anyezi, balere, rye, ndi adyo, mwa zina.

Chifukwa chake, tipereka nkhaniyi kukuwuzani zamakhalidwe, magwiridwe antchito ndi kufunikira kwa ma oligosaccharides.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

oligosaccharides a khansa ya m'matumbo

Kufunika kwa ma oligosaccharides kumayambira pamakampani azakudya ndi ulimi. Ndipo ndikuti m'malo awa kwapatsidwa chidwi chachikulu pakuchita kwake kwa maantibiotiki, zinthu zosagaya chakudya, zinthu zina zopindulitsa chifukwa cha kukondoweza kosankha ndi kukula kwa mitundu ya mabakiteriya am'matumbo. Manyuzipepala amachokera kuzinthu zachilengedwe komanso hydrolysis ya polysaccharides. Tikaisanthula kuchokera ku zomera, timawona kuti ndi oligosaccharides a glucose, galactose ndi sucrose, womaliza kukhala woposa onse. Amathanso kupezeka ndi mapuloteni omwe amapanga ma glycoprotein.

Kufunika kwa ma glycoprotein kumakhala gawo lawo pakuzindikira kwama cell, kumangiriza lectin, kupangika kwa maselo owonjezera, ma virus ndi ma antigen determinants. Zomwe zimapangidwira zimakhala zosiyana. Oligosaccharides amapangidwa ndi monosaccharides omwe amatha kukhala ketoses ndi aldoses. Ndi mitundu ya shuga yomwe imakhala ndi magulu ambiri a hydroxyl. Magulu amowa omwe ma hydroxyl awa amakhala atha kukhala oyambira komanso achiwiri. Mwanjira imeneyi, tikuwona kuti mapangidwe a monosaccharides omwe amapanga oligosaccharides ndi ozungulira. Izi zimatha kukhala zamtundu wa pyranose kapena furanose.

Chitsanzo cha izi ndi shuga, yemwe ndi aldose yemwe mawonekedwe ake ndi pyranose. Mbali inayi, mu zipatso, timapeza fructose, yemwe ndi ketosis yemwe mawonekedwe ake ozungulira ndi furanose. Ma monosaccharides onse omwe amapanga oligosaccharide amakhala ndi D-kasinthidwe ka glyceraldehyde. Pali ma oligosaccharides omwe sagayika ndipo amakhala ndi mawonekedwe ena. Zowona kuti sizingagayike zimachitika chifukwa chakuti kapangidwe kake sikangasungidwe hydrolyzed ndi michere yam'mimba kuchokera m'matumbo ndi malovu. Ngakhale zili choncho, amasamala za hydrolysis chifukwa cha michere ya mabakiteriya omwe amakhala m'matumbo.

Kapangidwe ndi ntchito za oligosaccharides

alireza

Monga tanena kumayambiriro kwa nkhaniyi, izi zimapangidwa ndi zotsalira pakati pa 3-10 monosaccharide. Chimodzi mwazinthu zomwe timapeza tikamayang'ana kapangidwe kake ndi inulin. Ndi oligosaccharide wosagayika omwe ali ndi zotsalira zopitilira 10 za monosaccharide. Tikanena za zotsalira tikuloza kuthetsedwe kwamolekyulu yamadzi pomwe mgwirizano wa glucoside umapangidwa pakati pa monosaccharides.

Ponena za ntchito, tili ndi ma disaccharides omwe amapezeka kwambiri omwe ndi sucrose ndi lactose. Zonsezi ndizopereka mphamvu zomwe zimathandiza kuti thupi lizigwira ntchito bwino. Ntchito zina za oligosaccharides osagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi kuti ndi ma prebiotic, ndikuthandizira kukula kwa mabakiteriya ndikuchepetsa cholesterol. Chifukwa chake, ndi njira yabwino kwambiri pakampani yazakudya ngati tikufuna kukonza thanzi la anthu m'miyoyo yawo ya tsiku ndi tsiku.

Amagwiranso ntchito ngati zotsekemera zokhazokha ndipo amathandizira kwambiri kufooka kwa mafupa. China chomwe chimakulitsa mamolekyuluwa ndikulamulira matenda ashuga polimbikitsa kukula kwa matumbo microflora. Ma oligosaccharides awa amadziwika kuti ndi zinthu monga kuchepetsa chiopsezo chotenga matenda ndi kutsegula m'mimba pochepetsa zomera zomwe zimayambitsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndikuthandizira chitetezo cha mthupi.

Pali maphunziro ambiri omwe amathandizira pantchito zonsezi ndipo nthawi iliyonse yomwe timayesetsa kutenga nawo mbali m'moyo wathu watsiku ndi tsiku.

Mitundu ya oligosaccharides

Tikamayesa kugawa mamolekyu amtunduwu, timawona kuti atha kugawidwa mofanana komanso kawirikawiri. Yoyamba ndi disaccharides. Sucrose ndi lactose ndizofala kwambiri. Zovuta kwambiri ndizomwe zimakhala nazo Zotsalira zitatu kapena zingapo zokha za monosaccharide ndipo zambiri zimapezeka zogawidwa mu zomera. Zomwe zimapezeka m'chilengedwe zimasiyana ndi monosaccharides zomwe zimapanga. Chifukwa chake, ma oligosaccharides otsatirawa amapezeka: fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS); lactulooligosaccharides yochokera ku galactooligosaccharides (LDGOS); xylooligosaccharides (XOS); arabinooligosaccharides (OSA); Kuchokera ku zitsamba zam'madzi (ADMO).

Njira ina yomwe ilipo yogawa mamolekyuluwa ndi kuwagawa m'magulu oyambira ndi sekondale. Zoyambirira ndizo zomwe zimapezeka muzomera ndipo zimagawidwa m'magulu omwe amatengera shuga ndi sucrose. Mbali inayi, tili ndi oyang'anira omwe amapangidwa kuchokera kumipingo yoyamba. Zoyambirira ndizo zomwe zimapangidwa kuchokera ku monosaccharides komanso kuchokera kwa wopereka glycosyl pogwiritsa ntchito glycosyltransferase. Chitsanzo cha izi ndi sucrose.

Disaccharides ndiochulukirapo ndipo pakati pawo tili ndi sucrose. Sucrose amapangidwa ndi glucose ndi fructose. Kumbali ina kuli lactose, yomwe imapangidwa ndi glucose ndi galactose. Lactose imapezeka mumkaka wokha. Masiku ano pali anthu ambiri omwe ali ndi vuto losavomerezeka ndi lactose chifukwa matupi awo alibe michere yomwe imatha kuyigwiritsa ntchito.

Mapulogalamu mu khansa yamatumbo

Maonekedwe a matenda a khansa yam'matumbo amakhudzana ndi moyo. Nyama ndi mowa zimawonjezera chiopsezo cha matendawa, pomwe zakudya zokhala ndi michere ndi mkaka zimachepetsa. Chifukwa chake, ndikofunikira kuphunzira kuyambitsa zakudya zopatsa thanzi komanso zakuthupi zosiyanasiyana m'zakudya zathu. Kugwiritsa ntchito moyenera kwa maantibiotiki kutengera zomwe awona bifidobacteria ndi lactobacilli zimalephera kupanga mankhwala a khansa.

Maphunziro ambiri omwe adachitidwa akhala aku nyama osati mwa anthu. Kugwiritsa ntchito ma prebiotic kwawonetsedwa kuti kumapangitsa kuchepa kwakukulu kwa cell ya colon ndi genotoxicity, kuthandizira kukulitsa ntchito yotchinga m'mimba.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi izi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za oligosaccharides ndi mawonekedwe awo.


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