Ofukula chopangira mphamvu mphepo

Makina amphepo amasintha mphepo kukhala mphamvu

Un ofukula chopangira mphamvu mphepo yopingasa uli ngati jenereta yamagetsi yomwe imagwira ntchito Kusintha mphamvu zakuthambo za mphepo mu mphamvu yamakina komanso kudzera mu chopangira mphepo zamagetsi.

Pali mitundu iwiri ikuluikulu ya ofukula ndi yopingasa olamulira chopangira mphepo. Omwe ali ndi olamulira ofukula amaonekera posafunikira makina oyendetsera zinthu ndipo jenereta yamagetsi ndi iti yomwe ingakonzedwe pansi. Kumbali inayi, iwo omwe ali ndi cholumikizira chopingasa ndi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndipo amalola kuphimba mitundu ingapo yazogwiritsa ntchito yamagetsi yaying'ono mpaka kumafamu akulu amphepo.

Tidzasanthula zazikuluzikulu ziwiri, monga makina amphepo otsogola ndi opingasa omwe atchulidwa kale, ndi zomwe zingakhale malingaliro atsopano omwe amayesera kuti apindule kwambiri ndi izi kuti mphepo apange mphamvu zamagetsi. Tili mzaka zochepa pomwe ukadaulo ukupita patsogolo ndipo timawona malingaliro atsopano nthawi zonse monga makina amphepo opanda mphamvu a Vortex project kapena Wind Tree, mtundu wamtengo womwe umapanga mphamvu mwakachetechete.

Kodi chopukutira mphepo chowongolera ndi chiyani?

Pali mitundu yambiri yama makina amphepo

Chingwe chowongolera cholumikizira chimakhala chopangira mphepo momwe mozungulira chimakhazikika mozungulira ndipo chimatha kupanga magetsi mosasamala kanthu komwe mphepo ikuchokera. Ubwino wamtunduwu wamagetsi wowongoka ndikuti imatha kupanga magetsi ngakhale m'malo opanda mphepo pang'ono ndi madera akumidzi komwe malamulo omanga nyumba amaletsa kukhazikitsidwa kwa makina amphepo.

Monga tanenera, ofukula kapena ofukula olamulira makina amphepo palibe chifukwa chazomwe zimayendera ndipo jenereta yamagetsi yomwe ingakhalepo ingapezeke pansi. Wake kupanga mphamvu kumakhala kotsika ndipo ili ndi zopunduka zina zazing'ono ngati zimafunikira kuyendetsedwa ndi magalimoto kuti ziziyenda.

Pali mitundu itatu ya makina amphepo ofukula monganso Savonius, Giromill ndi Darrrieus.

Mtundu wa Savonius

Izi zimadziwika ndi kukhala zopangidwa ndi masekondi awiri Kuthamangitsidwa kumtunda pamtunda wina, momwe mpweya umayendera, kotero zimakhala ndi mphamvu zochepa.

Giromil

Chimaonekera pokhala ndi akonzedwa a masamba ofukula yokhala ndi mipiringidzo iwiri pamzere wolunjika ndipo imapereka magetsi kuchokera ku 10 mpaka 20 Kw.

Darrieus

Zapangidwa ndi masamba awiri kapena atatu a biconvex adalumikizidwa olamulira ofukula pansi ndi pamwamba, amalola kugwiritsa ntchito mphepo mkati mwa bwalo lalitali kwambiri. Choyipa chake ndikuti samadzitembenukira okha ndikufuna rotor ya Savonius.

Kodi chopangira chopangira cholowera chimagwira bwanji?

M'makina amphepo ofukula, masambawo amasinthasintha ndi mphamvu yomwe imayendetsa mphepoyo. Makina amphepo yolowera, mosiyana ndi yopingasa, nthawi zonse amakhala ogwirizana ndi mphepo. Zilibe kanthu kuti ndi malangizo ati omwewo chifukwa amatha kugwira ntchito ngakhale mphepo ikawomba kuthamanga kwenikweni. Ubwino wa makina amphepo ofukulawa ndikuti ndi ocheperako komanso opepuka kuposa makina amagetsi omwe amakhala ndi chopingasa. Pokhala zazing'ono, zimapanga mphamvu zochepa. Komabe, amatha kutentha nyumba, kuyatsa magetsi onse amkati ndi akunja ndikuyambiranso batire lamagalimoto amagetsi.

Makina oyendetsa olowera mopingasa

Omwe ali ndi olamulira yopingasa ali Ogwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndipo ndi omwe titha kuwapeza m'minda yayikulu yayikulu momwe makina amtundu wamtunduwu amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pamwamba pa 1 Mw yamphamvu.

Makamaka ndimakina ozungulira momwe kayendedwe kameneka kamapangidwa ndi mphamvu zakuthambo za mphepo ikamazungulira mozungulira yomwe imakhala ndimasamba atatu. Kusuntha kozungulira komwe kumapangidwa kumafalikira ndikuchulukitsidwa ndikuchulukitsa kwachangu kwa jenereta yemwe ali ndi udindo wopanga mphamvu zamagetsi.

Zida zonsezi iwo amayima pa gondola Imaikidwa pamwamba pa nsanja yothandizira. Ndizo zomwe zimapezeka m'madera ena a dziko lathu koma zimakhala ndi mphamvu zoyera komanso zotsika mtengo.

Chingwe chilichonse cha mphepo chimakhala nacho microprocessor yomwe imayang'anira ndikuwongolera momwe akuyambira, kugwiritsa ntchito ndi kutseka kosiyanasiyana. Izi zimabweretsa chidziwitso chonsechi ndi zidziwitsozo kumalo oyang'anira unsembe. Iliyonse ya makina amphepo amtunduwu amaphatikizira, kumapeto kwa nsanjayo, kabati yokhala ndi zida zonse zamagetsi (ma switch zokha, ma transformer apano, oteteza pamavuto, ndi zina zambiri) zomwe zimathandizira kunyamula mphamvu zamagetsi zopangidwa mpaka kulumikizidwa kwa netiweki kapena mowa mfundo.

Mphamvu zomwe zimapezeka pamakina amphepo zimadalira mphamvu ya mphepo yomwe imadutsa mozungulira ndipo imafanana molingana ndi kuchuluka kwa mpweya, malowo amasesedwa ndi masamba ake komanso kuthamanga kwa mphepo.

Kugwiritsa ntchito chopangira mphepo amadziwika ndi mphamvu yake yokhotakhota izi zikuwonetsa kuchuluka kwa kuthamanga kwa mphepo momwe ingagwiritsidwire ntchito ndi mphamvu yomwe ikufunika panjira iliyonse.

Kodi ndi makina amtundu wanji otani omwe amagwira bwino ntchito?

Makina amphepo ndi amtsogolo

Pogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zamagetsi, makina amphepo opingasa ndi omwe amapambana masewerawa. Ndipo ndikuti amatha kufikira liwiro lalitali kwambiri chifukwa chake amafunika bokosi lamiyala lokhala ndi chiwerengerochi chocheperako. Kuphatikiza apo, chifukwa kumanga kwa makina amphepo awa kuyenera kuchitidwa kwambiri liwiro la mphepo limagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri. M'magawo apamwamba amlengalenga, kuthamanga kwa mphepo ndikokwera chifukwa kulibe choletsa chilichonse.

Kodi kuipa kwa makina amphepo a VAWT ndi ati?

Zoyipa zamtunduwu zama makina amphepo ndi awa:

  • Mtengo woyambira unsembe ndiwokwera kwambiri.
  • Ngati mukuyenera kudera lomwe kulibe mphepo yambiri nthawi zonse, mwayi ulipo Mphamvu zamagetsi sizingachotsedwe.
  • Mutha kukhala ndi mavuto ndi oyandikana nawo chifukwa cha phokoso.
  • Ma Turbine nthawi zambiri amangogwira ntchito pafupifupi 30%.

Kugwiritsa ntchito makina amphepo ndi mbiri

Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zamagetsi kuchokera kumphepo kwagwiritsidwa ntchito kale ndi makina ozungulira mphepo m'nyumba zomwe zili kutali kumadera akumidzi chapakatikati pa zaka za m'ma XNUMX.

Koma yemwe adayika kwambiri ukadaulo uwu mzaka za m'ma 70 anali Denmark. Izi zidalola kuti dziko lino likhale mmodzi wa opanga kutsogolera yamtundu wamagetsi wamtunduwu momwe zimakhalira ndi Vestas ndi Nokia Wind Power.

Kale mu 2013, mphepo mphamvu zinapanga ofanana ndi 33% Kugwiritsa ntchito magetsi kwathunthu, ndi 39% mu 2014. Tsopano cholinga cha Denmark ndikufikira 50% pofika 2020 komanso pofika 2035 84%.

Kusintha komwe dziko lino linapanga linali chifukwa cha mpweya waukulu wa CO2 kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 70, mphamvu zowonjezeredwa zidakhala chisankho chachikulu mdziko lino. Izi zidapangitsa kuchepa kwa kudalira kwa mphamvu kumaiko ena ndikuchepetsa kuwonongeka kwapadziko lonse.

Mbiri inali kukhazikitsa ku Denmark kwa Makina oyamba amphepo omwe amafikira 2 Mw. Makinawa anali ndi nsanja yayikulu komanso masamba atatu. Inamangidwa ndi aphunzitsi ndi ophunzira ochokera kusukulu ya Tvind. Ndipo choseketsa pa nkhaniyi ndikuti "amateurs" amenewo adasekedwa m'masiku awo lisanakhazikitsidwe. Mpaka lero makina amphepowa akugwirabe ntchito ndipo ali ndi kapangidwe kofanana kwambiri ndi makina amagetsi amakono.

Tsogolo la makina amphepo

Mpaka pano, zopangira ukadaulo zikupitilirabe mpaka pano sinthani ntchito mphamvu ya mphepo. Mu 2015, makina opangira zida zazikulu kwambiri anali Vestas V164 yoti mugwiritse ntchito pafupi ndi gombe.

Mu 2014, kuposa Makina amphepo 240.000 anali akugwira ntchito padziko lapansi, ndikupanga 4% yamagetsi apadziko lonse lapansi. Mu 2014, mphamvu zonse zidadutsa 336 Gw ndi China, United States, Germany, Spain ndi Italy ngati atsogoleri pamakonzedwe.

Ndipo si maiko awa okha omwe akukulitsa kuchuluka kwawo kwa makina amphepo olowera kapena opingasa, komanso ena ambiri omwe amafunafuna njira yokhazikika Monga momwe zimakhalira ku France ndi Eiffel Tower, yomwe tsopano imapanga mphamvu zake chifukwa cha makina amphepo omwe ayikidwa kumene ndipo magetsi a LED, magetsi am'madzi ndi njira yosonkhanitsira madzi amvula ziziwonjezeredwa kuti zilimbikitse mphamvu zoyera komanso zotsika mtengo.

Komanso sitingayiwale za zoyesayesa zatsopano mwa mawonekedwe a Makina opangira mphepo 157 aminda 3 yatsopano ya mphepo ku South Africa zomwe zidzachokera m'manja mwa m'modzi mwaopanga zazikulu zamtundu uwu waukadaulo monga Nokia. Adzawonjezera pakati pa 3 mphamvu ya 140 mW ndipo akuyembekezeka kuti adzaikidwa koyambirira kwa 2016 kuti azipereka magetsi kwa anthu oyandikira m'dziko lino la Africa.

Nkhani yowonjezera:
Chilichonse chomwe muyenera kudziwa za makina amphepo

Ukadaulo wa makina oyandama amphepo

Monga titha kuwonera mbiri ya mphamvu yamkuntho, mphepo yakunyanja idayamba kukulira mu 2009 pamene makina amphepo oyandama a Hywind adayikidwa ku Norway pamtengo wapafupifupi 62 miliyoni dollars.

Japan, pambuyo pa ngozi ya nyukiliya ku Fukushima, adapanga kukhazikitsa 80 makina amphepo am'madzi m'mbali mwa nyanja pafupi ndi 2020.

Vortex Propellerless Wind Turbines

Kampani yaku Spain yotchedwa Deutecno ili nayo adapanga makina amphepo opanda ziwalo zosuntha yomwe idalandira mphotho yoyamba mgulu la Energy ku The South Summit 2014.

Makina amphepo opanda mphepo amenewa ndi adzakhala akuyang'anira kuthetsa makina akuluakulu amphepo aja omwe amasintha masanjidwe kulikonse komwe amaikidwako. Magwiridwe ake azikhala ofanana koma osungitsa ndalama zambiri, kupatula kuti kukonza ndi kukhazikitsa kwake ndiotsika mtengo.

Payeneranso kukhala kuchepetsa kusokonekera kwachilengedwe Kupatula apo imachotsa phokoso lomwe makina amtundu amphepo amapangira.

Tekinoloje yawo imagwira ntchito mwanjira yoti amagwiritsa mapindikidwe chifukwa cha kugwedera zomwe zimachitika chifukwa cha mphepo ikamalowa mu resonance mu silinda yolimba yoyimirira komanso yolumikizidwa pansi.

Gawo lalikulu la Vortex, lomwe ndi silinda, lakhalapo zopangidwa ndi zida zopangira ma piezoelectric ndi fiberglass kapena kaboni, ndipo mphamvu zamagetsi zimapangidwa ndikusintha kwa izi.

2016 idzakhala chaka momwe mphero yoyamba yopanda mphepo yakonzeka.

Mtengo wa mphepo

Ntchito yopanga mwanzeru ndi Wind Tree yomwe ikupangidwa ndi NewWind ndipo ndiye wopangidwa ndi masamba 72 opanga. Iliyonse ya iwo ndi chopangira chopindika chowoneka bwino ndipo chimakhala ndi misa yaying'ono yomwe imatha kupanga mphamvu ndi kamphepo kayaziyezi ka 2 mita pamphindikati.

Izi zimakupatsani mwayi pangani mphamvu masiku 280 mchaka ndipo kupanga kwake konse ndi 3.1 kW pomwe ma turbine 72 akuyenda. Mita 11 kutalika ndi 8 mita m'mimba mwake, Wind Tree ili pafupi kukula kwa mtengo weniweni kuti ukhoze kukwanira bwino mumalo am'mizinda.

Un makamaka ntchito ndipo izi zikutiika patsogolo pa kupita patsogolo kwamatekinoloje komwe kumafuna njira yogwirira ntchito bwino komanso kutha kupereka mphamvu zokwanira pagululi yamagetsi yaboma kapena zowonjezera m'nyumba.

Mbali za chopangira mphepo

Mbali za chopangira mphepo

Chithunzi - Wikimedia / Enrique Dans

Makina amphepo amtundu wonse amatha kutalika kwa mita 200 ndi matani 20 wa kulemera. Kapangidwe kake ndi zinthu zake ndizovuta ndipo zimapangidwa kuti zikwaniritse kupanga magetsi kuchokera pa liwiro la XNUMX mpaka pazipita.

Pakati pa zigawozo ndi mbali za chopangira mphepor tili:

Base

Maziko oyendetsera makina amphepo ayenera kukhala cholumikizidwa bwino pamaziko olimba. Pachifukwachi, makina amphepo olamulira olinganizika amapangidwa ndi maziko olimba a konkriti olimba pansi omwe amasinthasintha mtunda womwe amapezeka ndikuthandizira kupirira katundu wamphepo.

Nsanja

Nsanjayo ndi gawo la chopangira mphepo chomwe imathandizira kulemera konse ndipo ndiyomwe imasunga masambawo pansi. Amangidwa ndi konkire wolimbitsa pansi ndi chitsulo pamwamba. Nthawi zambiri kumakhala kopanda mwayi kuti munthu athe kugwiritsa ntchito gondola. Chinsanjacho chimayang'anira kukweza makina amphepo mokwanira kuti athe kugwiritsa ntchito mphepo yayitali kwambiri. Chitsulo chozungulira kapena fiberglass nacelle imamangirizidwa kumapeto kwa nsanjayo.

Masamba ndi ozungulira

Makina amakono apangidwa masamba atatu chifukwa zimapereka kuwongolera kosalala. Masamba amapangidwa ndi zinthu zopangidwa ndi polyester zolimbitsa ndi magalasi kapena ulusi wa kaboni. Makinawa amapatsa masambawo kukana kwambiri. Masamba amatha kutalika kwa mita 100 ndipo amalumikizidwa ndi chozungulira. Chifukwa cha malo awa, masamba amatha kusintha momwe masambawo amapindulira kuti agwiritse ntchito mphepo.

Ponena za ma rotor, pakadali pano ndi yopingasa ndipo itha kukhala ndi mfundo. Nthawi zambiri, ili kumapeto kwa nsanjayo. Izi zimachitika kuti muchepetse kuchuluka kwa masamba omwe amawoneka ngati ali pafupi ndi leeward yake, chifukwa ngati tsamba limaikidwa kumbuyo kwa nsanjayo, liwiro la zochitikazo lidzasinthidwa kwambiri.

Gondola

Ndi chipinda chomwe munganene choncho Ndi chipinda chamainjini chopangira makina amphepo. Nacelle amazungulira nsanjayo kuti ayike chopangira choyang'ana mphepo. Nacelle ili ndi gearbox, shaft yayikulu, makina owongolera, jenereta, mabuleki, ndi njira zosinthira.

Bokosi lamagetsi

Ntchito ya gearbox ndiyakuti sinthani liwiro lotembenukira kuchokera ku shaft yayikulu mpaka yomwe amafunikira jenereta.

Jenereta

M'magetsi amtundu wamakono pali mitundu itatu yamagetsi zomwe zimasiyanasiyana kokha ndi machitidwe a jenereta pakagwa mothamanga kwambiri kwa mphepo ndikuyesera kupewa kupewa kuchuluka.

Pafupifupi makina onse amagwiritsa ntchito imodzi mwamachitidwe atatu awa:

  • Squirrel Cage Induction Generator
  • Biphasic induction jenereta
  • Jenereta yolumikizirana

Kuswa dongosolo

Dongosolo Braking ndi chitetezo Ili ndi zimbale zomwe zimathandizira pakagwa mwadzidzidzi kapena pokonza kuletsa mphero ndikuletsa kuwonongeka kwa nyumbayo.

Njira yoyendetsera

Mphero ya mphepo ndiyokwanira ankalamulira ndi makina ndi dongosolo kulamulira. Makinawa amapangidwa ndi makompyuta omwe amayang'anira zomwe zimaperekedwa ndi makina amphepo komanso anemometer yoyikidwa pamwamba pa nacelle. Mwanjira iyi, podziwa momwe nyengo ilili, mutha kuwongolera mphero ndi masamba kuti mukwaniritse bwino magetsi ndi mphepo. Zonse zomwe amalandira zokhudzana ndi momwe makina amapangidwira amatha kutumizidwa kutali ku seva yapakati ndikuwongolera zonse. Kukachitika kuti kuthamanga kwa mphepo kapena nyengo imatha kuwononga kapangidwe ka makina amphepo, ndi makina owongolera mutha kudziwa msanga momwe zinthu zilili ndikuyambitsa mabuleki, motero kupewa kuwonongeka.

Chifukwa cha magawo onse amagetsi amphepo omwe mungathe kupanga mphamvu zamagetsi kuchokera kumphepo m'njira yowonjezeredwa komanso yosadetsa chilengedwe.


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  1.   Pablo Acevedo G. anati

    Tili ndi ntchito yopanga magetsi. Ndikufuna olumikizana nawo kuti ndiyambitse.Foni 57830415_7383284 Zikomo kwambiri

  2.   Javier Garcia anati

    Ndikufuna kupeza chopangira mphepo chanyumba chomwe chitha kupanga 24kwh patsiku kuti muchite ntchito yanokha ndipo chitha kuwonetsa mtengo wake, zikomo

    1.    Pablo anati

      Wawa Javier .. kuchokera pa funso lanu ndikuwona kuti mukufunika kilowatt ola limodzi ... Ndikupatsirani mtengo wabwino kwambiri pamsika
      Pachifukwa ichi ndikufuna mbiri yanu monga mzinda, dziko, ndi zina zambiri.

  3.   Jorge Paucar anati

    Moni Ndili kumayambiriro kwa ntchitoyi kale ndi zotsatira zolonjeza kwambiri a_eletropaucar@hotmail.com Peru

  4.   Francisco Villen. anati

    Ma behemoth awa a ma jenereta ali ndi njira yayifupi kwambiri, chifukwa ili pafupi pomwepo, kupanga magetsi ndi maginito maginito (maginito) ndipo nyumba zonse zitha kukhala ndi jenereta yawo, ya 4 kapena 5 kw mumalo ofanana kwa makina ochapira.

  5.   Marlon kuthawa anati

    Moni, ndikufuna zambiri kuti ndigwiritse ntchito yankho lanu munyumba yogona, tikufuna kuchepetsa ndi / kapena kuthetsa kumwa; Tili ndi chotenthetsera magetsi padziwe ndikuwunikira malo onse omwe amapezeka, chonde tumizani zambiri zaukadaulo wamagetsi.