Mphamvu yoweyula kapena mphamvu yoweyula

Mphamvu yamafunde

Mafunde a m'nyanja amakhala ndi mphamvu zambiri yochokera kumphepo, kotero kuti nyanja yamadzi imatha kuwona ngati wamkulu wokhometsa mphamvu ya mphepo.

Koma, nyanja zimatenga mphamvu zazikulu za dzuwa, zomwe zimathandizanso pakuyenda kwa mafunde am'nyanja ndi mafunde.

Mafunde ndi mafunde amphamvu opangidwa, monga ndanenera kale, ndi mphepo ndi kutentha kwa dzuwa, komwe kumafalikira ndi pamwamba pa nyanja ndipo kumakhala koyenda kopingasa kwama molekyulu amadzi.

Madzi oyandikira pamwamba samangoyenda kuchokera pamwamba mpaka pansi, ndikudutsa kwa kachilomboka (ndiye gawo lake lalitali kwambiri, nthawi zambiri kumakhala thovu) ndi sinus (gawo lotsikitsitsa la mafunde), koma, pakufufuma pang'ono, imapitanso patsogolo pakatikati pa funde ndikubwerera m'mbuyo pachifuwa.

Mamolekyulu amomwemo amayenda mozungulira mozungulira, kutuluka pomwe chombocho chikuyandikira, kenako ndikutsogola, chimatsika chikatsalira kumbuyo, ndikubwerera m'mbuyo mkati mwa funde.

Mafunde awa amphamvu pamwamba pa nyanja, mafunde, amatha kuyenda makilomita mamiliyoni ambiri ndipo m'malo ena, monga North Atlantic, kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zosungidwa kumatha kufikira 10 KW pa mita iliyonse ya nyanja, yomwe imaimira kuchuluka kwakukulu ngati mungaganizire kukula kwa nyanja.

Madera am'nyanja okhala ndi mphamvu zambiri anasonkhanitsa mafunde ndi zigawo kupitirira 30º kumpoto ndi kum'mwera, pomwe mphepo imakhala yamphamvu kwambiri.

Pachithunzi chotsatirachi mutha kuwona momwe kutalika kwa funde kumasinthira kutengera nyanja momwe malowo amafikira.

matalikidwe amasintha mafunde

Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yamafunde

Mtundu wamtunduwu udagwiridwa koyamba ndikugwiritsidwa ntchito mzaka za 1980, ndipo wakhala akulandilidwa bwino, chifukwa chake zongowonjezwdwa, komanso kuthekera kwake kwakukulu kukhazikitsa posachedwa.

Kukhazikitsa kwake kumathandizanso kwambiri pakati pa kutalika kwa 40 ° ndi 60 ° chifukwa cha mawonekedwe a mafunde.

Pachifukwa chomwechi, kuyeserera kwachitika kwa nthawi yayitali kuti asinthe mayendedwe owongoka komanso osunthika amagetsi omwe angagwiritsidwe ntchito ndi anthu, makamaka mphamvu ya mphepo, ngakhale ntchito zakhala zikuchitidwa kuti zisinthe kukhala mayendedwe amakanika.

Ntchito yamagetsi yamagetsi

Kuchita upainiya ku Canary Islands

Pali zida zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimapangidwira izi, zomwe zimatha kupezeka mu magombe, kunyanja yayikulu kapena kumizidwa m'madzi.

Pakadali pano, mphamvuyi yakhazikitsidwa m'maiko ambiri otukuka, ndikupeza phindu lalikulu pachuma cha mayiko awa, chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zoperekedwa poyerekeza ndi mphamvu zonse zofunika pachaka.

Mwachitsanzo:

  • Ku United States akuti pafupifupi 55 TWh pachaka amasinthidwa ndimphamvu zochokera pamafunde. Mtengo uwu ndi 14% ya mphamvu zonse zomwe dziko limafuna pachaka.
  • Ndipo mkati Europe amadziwika kuti kuzungulira 280 TWh Amachokera ku mphamvu zopangidwa ndikuyenda kwa mafunde mchaka.

Zowonjezera zamagetsi zam'mphepete mwa nyanja

M'madera omwe mphepo zamalonda (Mphepo izi zimawomba mowirikiza mchilimwe, kumpoto kwa dziko lapansi, komanso nthawi yocheperako nthawi yozizira. Zimazungulira pakati pa madera otentha, kuchokera ku 30-35º latitude kulowera ku equator. Amayendetsedwa kuchokera kuzipembedzo zazikuluzikulu, kulowera kumavuto otsika a ku equator.) kusuntha kwa mafunde, mutha pangani posungira ndi khoma lotsetsereka konkriti moyang'anizana ndi nyanja, pomwe mafunde amatha kutsetsereka kuti azikundikira mosungira komwe kumakhala pakati pa 1,5 ndi 2 mita pamwamba pa nyanja.

Madzi awa amatha kupindika, kuwalola kuti abwerere kunyanja, kuti apange magetsi.

Kukwera ndi kutsika kwa mafunde, m'malo ena momwe ukadaulo uwu ungagwire ntchito, ndi ochepa kwambiri, chifukwa chake sichingasokoneze chilichonse.

M'madera a m'mphepete mwa nyanja momwe mafunde amakhala ndi mphamvu zambiri, mafunde amatha kutsogozedwa ndi zotchinga za konkriti zomwe zimayikidwa m'nyanja, zomwe zimatha onetsetsani pafupifupi mphamvu zonse zakutsogolo kutsogolo kwa makilomita 10 m'dera laling'ono la 400 mita.

Mafunde pakadali pano amatha kutalika kwa 15 mpaka 30 mita akamapita kugombe, kuti madzi athe kudziunjikira mosavuta posungira pamalo ena kutalika.

Potulutsa madzi awa munyanja, magetsi atha kupangidwa pogwiritsa ntchito zida wamba zamagetsi.

Kugwiritsa ntchito kayendedwe kabwino

Pali zida zosiyanasiyana zamtunduwu.

Pachithunzi chotsatirachi mutha kuwona chimodzi chomwe chakhala chikugwiritsidwa ntchito ndipo chomwe chapereka zotsatira zokhutiritsa.

kuthamanga kwa funde ndi kukhumudwaNdi njira yogwiritsira ntchito mphamvu yamafunde yomwe ntchito yake ndiyosavuta ndipo ili ndi izi:

  • Mafunde akukwera imamanga kuthamanga kwa mpweya mkati mwa kapangidwe kotsekedwa. Ndendende chimodzimodzi ngati tikakanikiza syringe.
  • Mavavu "amakakamiza" mpweya kuti udutse chopangira mafuta kuti utembenuke ndikusuntha jenereta, ndikupanga mphamvu yamagetsi.
  • Mafunde akatsikira amabala kukhumudwa mlengalenga.
  • Mavavuwo "amakakamiziranso" mpweya kuti udutse munthawi yomweyo monga momwe zinalili m'mbuyomu, pomwe chopangacho chimayambiranso kuzungulira kwake, chimasuntha jenereta ndikupitiliza kupanga magetsi.

Mfundo yomweyi idagwiritsidwanso ntchito mu Sitima ya Kaimei mothandizidwa ndi chopangira mpweya chopanikizika, ntchito yolumikizana ndi boma la Japan ndi International Energy Agency.

Zotsatira za ntchitoyi zidakhala zopindulitsa kwambiri, ngakhale kugwiritsa ntchito sikukufalikira.

Ukadaulo womwewo wagwiritsidwa ntchito posachedwa, koma kugwiritsa ntchito konkire zazikulu zoyandama, mu ntchito yomangidwa ku Scotland.

Palinso zida zina zomwe sinthani mayendedwe akumwamba ndi otsika ya funde kuti ipange magetsi monga:

Chombo cha Cockerell

Chipangizochi chimakhala ndi chiphalaphala chofotokozedwa chomwe chimapindika ndikudutsa kwa mafunde, potero amatenga mwayi poyenda poyendetsa hayidiroliki.

raft mphamvu mafunde

Bakha wa Salter

Wina wodziwika bwino ndi bakha wa Salter, yemwe amapangidwa mosiyanasiyana mosalekeza matupi owoneka ngati oval omwe amasunthira kutsogolo ndi kumbuyo, "akamenyedwa" ndi mafunde.

zoyenda

Chikwama cha ndege ku Lancaste Universityr

Chikwamacho chimakhala ndi chubu chokhala ndi mphira wautali wa 180 mita. Mafundewo akamakwera ndi kugwa, mpweya umakokedwa m'zipinda za thumba kuyendetsa chopangira mphamvu.

Cylinder ya University of Bristol

Chosanjikiza ichi chimakhala ndi kasinthidwe kofanana ndi mbiya yomwe imayikidwa mbali yake yomwe imayandama pansi pake. Mbiyayo imazungulira poyenda mafunde, ndikukoka maunyolo olumikizidwa ndi mapampu amadzimadzi omwe amakhala kunyanja.

Kugwiritsa ntchito mwachindunji kuyenda kwa mafunde

Adayesedwa machitidwe ena kuti agwiritse ntchito molunjika kuyenda kwam'mwamba ndi kutsika kwa mafunde.

Mmodzi wa iwo, potengera kayendedwe ka ma dolphin ndi anangumi, mutha kuziwona pachithunzichi.

kuyerekeza kwa dolphin

Mfundo yogwirira ntchito ndiyosavuta ndipo ili ndi izi:

  • Mafunde akakwera ndikukankhira kumapeto, komwe kumatha kuyenda pakati pa 10 ndi 15º.
  • Chotsatira, kumapeto kumatha kumapeto kwaulendo ndipo funde likupitilizabe kukwera, apa pali kukankhira kumtunda komwe funde limasintha kukhala kubwerera mmbuyo.
  • Pambuyo pake, funde likatsika, limasunthira kumapeto kwake ndipo zomwezi zimachitika monga momwe zidalili kale.

Ngati bwato lili ndi machitidwe amtunduwu, limayendetsedwa ndi mafunde osagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zochepa.

Mayeso oyesera a dongosololi akhala okhutiritsa, ngakhale momwe zidalili kale, kugwiritsa ntchito kwake sikunaphatikizidweko konse.

Ubwino ndi zovuta zamagetsi zamagetsi

Mphamvu yamafunde ili nayo zabwino zazikulu monga:

  • Ndi gwero la mphamvu zowonjezereka ndipo sadzatha pamlingo waumunthu.
  • Zovuta zake zachilengedwe zilibe kanthu, ngati ife kupatula makina opezera mphamvu yamafunde pamtunda.
  • Malo ambiri am'mbali mwa nyanja atha kukhala wophatikizidwa m'ma doko kapena amtundu wina.

Kukumana ndi maubwino awa ali nawo Zovuta zina, zina zofunika kwambiri ndi izi:

  • Njira zowunjikira mphamvu yoweyula pamtunda imatha kukhala yolimba kukhudzidwa kwachilengedwe.
  • Ili pafupi zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'maiko otukuka, chifukwa kayendedwe kabwino ka mafunde sikupezeka kawirikawiri mu Dziko Lachitatu; Mphamvu yamafunde imafunikira ndalama zambiri komanso luso lotsogola kwambiri lomwe mayiko osauka alibe.
  • Mphamvu yamafunde kapena mafunde sizinganenedweratu ndendende, chifukwa mafunde amadalira nyengo.
  • Ambiri mwa zida otchulidwa amakhalabe ndi zovuta ndipo akukumana ndi zovuta zaukadaulo.
  • Malo ogombe ali ndi kukopa kwakukulu.
  • M'malo akunyanja kuli kwambiri zovuta kutumiza mphamvu zopangidwa kumtunda.
  • Maofesiwa ayenera kupirira zovuta kwambiri kwa nthawi yayitali.
  • Mafundewo amakhala ndi makokedwe othamanga kwambiri komanso othamanga pang'ono, omwe amayenera kusinthidwa kukhala ma torque otsika komanso othamanga kwambiri, omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pafupifupi pamakina onse. Njirayi ili ndi ntchito yotsika kwambiri, pogwiritsa ntchito matekinoloje amakono.

Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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