Kodi mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndi yotani? Zomwe muyenera kudziwa

Mphamvu za nyukiliya

Zachidziwikire, mukudziwa mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndipo mukudziwa kuti mphamvu yamagetsi imapangidwa kuchokera pamenepo. Komabe, mwina simukudziwa momwe zimagwirira ntchito, kuchokera kuzinthu zomwe zimapangidwa komanso zabwino ndi zovuta zake. Munkhaniyi tifotokoza za kufotokoza zonse zokhudzana ndi mphamvu ya nyukiliya, kuyambira momwe imagwirira ntchito komanso zabwino zake.

Kodi mukufuna kudziwa zambiri zamagetsi a nyukiliya? Pitilizani kuwerenga kuti mudziwe zambiri.

Kodi mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndi yotani?

Mphamvu za nyukiliya ngati magetsi

Mphamvu za nyukiliya zimadziwikanso kuti mphamvu ya atomiki ndipo ndizomwe zimapezeka chifukwa cha zida za nyukiliya. Nuclei ndi ma atomu particles ndiwo omwe amatsogolera ntchitoyi. Zomwe zimachitika zimatha kuchitika zokha komanso kupangidwa ndi anthu. Chifukwa chake, mphamvu yamtunduwu ndiyothandiza kwambiri.

Kugwiritsa ntchito kwake kumakhala ndi zoopsa zomwe zimafunika kudziwa mozama kuti mukhale otetezeka, kwa ogwira ntchito komanso mumzinda wonse. Mphamvu za nyukiliya ndizomwe zimapangidwa mkati mwa atomu. Mkati mwa atomu iliyonse muli mitundu iwiri ya tinthu tomwe timatchedwa neutroni ndi ma proton. Ma electron amayenda mozungulira nthawi zonse, ndikupereka ndalama zamagetsi. Kuti mupange magetsi kuchokera ku mphamvu, muyenera kutulutsa mphamvu ija kuchokera pachimake pa maatomu. Izi zitha kuchitika pakuphatikizika kwa nyukiliya kapena Kukonzekera kwa nyukiliya. Kuphulika kwa nyukiliya kumagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo opangira zida za nyukiliya ngati njira yopangira magetsi.

Mphamvuzi sizothandiza kokha popanga magetsi, koma palinso magawo ena monga mankhwala, mafakitale kapena zida, kwa omwe mphamvu za nyukiliya ndizofunika kwambiri.

Momwe mphamvu ya nyukiliya imapangidwira

Zozizira nsanja

Monga tafotokozera, mphamvu za nyukiliya zimapangidwa kuchokera ku fission ndi fusion. Kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe zingapezeke kudzera mu njirazi ndi kwakukulu kwambiri kuposa china chilichonse. Ndi kusalinganika komwe kulipo pankhaniyi panthawi yochitapo kanthu, yomwe imatulutsa mphamvu.

Titha kunena kuti mdera lino, misa yocheperako imatha kupereka mphamvu zambiri. Kupereka chitsanzo ndikumvetsetsana bwino, kuchuluka kwa mphamvu yomwe kilogalamu ya uranium imatulutsa ndiyofanana ndi yomwe ingatulutse malasha 200.

Monga mukuwonera, Kusiyana pakati pakupanga magetsi ndikodabwitsa. Izi zimapangitsa kuti ikhale imodzi mwamphamvu zotsika mtengo, koma ndi zoopsa zina zomwe ziyenera kuganiziridwa.

Zomera za nyukiliya ndi kuchuluka kwa anthu

Kuwononga ndi mphamvu yoyera

Anthu akhala akugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu za nyukiliya kuti apeze magetsi kwakanthawi. Pachifukwa ichi, makina opanga zida za nyukiliya adamangidwa ndipo, ku Spain, tili ndi Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) lomwe limayang'anira ntchito zonse ndikuwonetsetsa kuti kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zamtunduwu ndizotetezeka momwe zingathere.

Ndipo ndichakuti chifukwa cha zida za nyukiliya zomwe zimayendetsedwa bwino zimatha kuchitika. Kuti apange magetsi, makina opanga magetsi amagwiritsa ntchito zotchedwa zida zopusa mu machitidwe anyukiliya kuti apereke kutentha. Kutentha kumeneku kumagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi kayendedwe ka thermodynamic kuyendetsa chosinthira ndipo magetsi amapanga. Umu ndi momwe ntchito yopangira zida za nyukiliya imagwirira ntchito.

Chinthu chachilendo ndichakuti mbewu zimagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala monga uranium ndi plutonium. Ngakhale kuti zochita ndi kupanga mphamvu kumeneku sizipanga mpweya wowononga m'mlengalenga, zimapanga zinyalala za nyukiliya zomwe zimawononga kwambiri komanso zowopsa. Chithandizo chake choyenera ndikusunga m'malo osungira okhaokha.

Mukamagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu kuchokera ku fissile element, iyenera kukhala yolimba kwa nthawi yayitali kuti izitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndipo zinthu zitatu zokha ndizomwe zimakwaniritsa izi Uranium 233, Uranium 235 ndi Plutonium.

Popanda zida za nyukiliya, izi sizingagwiritsidwe ntchito kupanga magetsi. Mkati mwa riyakitala pali mafuta ndipo ndipamene fission yoyendetsedwa imachitikira.

Kuopsa kwa zida za nyukiliya

Kuopsa kwa mphamvu za nyukiliya

Monga tafotokozera kangapo, mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndi yotsika mtengo koma imakhala ndi zoopsa zina. Ali ndi udindo wowononga mozungulira mpweya womwe umachokera pakupanga ndikupanga mafutawo komanso kuwongolera zinyalala za nyukiliya. Zinyalala izi nthawi zambiri zimaponyedwa m'mitsinje ndipo sizimayendetsedwa kangapo.

Sizinyalala zokha zomwe zimawononga madzi ndi nthaka zomwe ndi zowopsa panonso. Ngati mukuyang'aniridwa ndi zida za nyukiliya, masoka monga ngozi za Chernobyl ndi Fukushima ndi ngozi zina zomwe zachitika m'mbiri.

Ubwino wa mphamvu za nyukiliya

Ubwino ndi zabwino

Tikaganiza za mphamvu ya nyukiliya, timaganiza kuti ndi mphamvu yamphamvu komanso yoopsa kuigwira. Ngati mungalankhule za izi, ndizosapeweka kuganiza za bomba la atomiki la Hiroshima ndi Nagasaki komanso masoka aku Chernobyl ndi Fukushima. Komabe, sizinthu zonse zomwe zili zoyipa pamagetsi anyukiliya. Pali zabwino zambiri pogwiritsa ntchito mphamvuyi.

  • Mosiyana ndi zomwe ambiri amakhulupirira, Ndi mphamvu yoyera ndipo sichifuna mafuta. Ngati zinyalala za nyukiliya zayang'aniridwa bwino, sizimatulutsa zowononga zilizonse. Izi zimathandiza kuchepetsa mpweya wowononga m'mlengalenga komanso kutentha kwanyengo.
  • Chitsimikizo chake chopezeka zamagetsi chimakhala chosasintha, ndiye kuti, chimatipatsa magetsi maola 24 patsiku, masiku 365 pachaka.
  • Popeza kapangidwe kake ndi kosasintha, mitengo imakhalanso nthawi zonse. Mafuta amatengera lingaliro lamakampani ambiri ndipo mtengo wake ukusintha nthawi zonse.
  • Mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndi yotsika mtengo ngati tilingalira kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe zimatha kupanga. Kuti tipeze mphamvu za nyukiliya, pamafunika zinthu zochepa (uranium kapena plutonium) zomwe zimasungidwa mu zinthuzo (uranium imayimira pafupifupi kotala la ndalama zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mphamvu za nyukiliya) komanso poyendetsa, kusungira, zomangamanga, ndi zina zambiri.
  • Sizidalira zinthu zachilengedwe kapena zachilengedwe monga mphamvu zowonjezeredwa.

Monga mukuwonera, mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndi yathunthu ndipo, ngakhale imaganiziridwa kwambiri za radiation ndi khansa, ndi njira yabwino kupewa kutentha kwanyengo.


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