Chilichonse chomwe muyenera kudziwa za mphamvu ya geothermal

Chomera chamagetsi chamagetsi

Dziko la mphamvu zowonjezereka likuchulukirachulukira m'misika yapadziko lonse lapansi chifukwa champikisano wokwanira komanso kuchita bwino kwambiri. Pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mphamvu zowonjezereka (monga ndikuganiza kuti tonse tikudziwa) koma ndizowona kuti mkati mwa mphamvu zowonjezeredwa, timapezanso ena "odziwika", monga mphamvu ya dzuwa ndi mphepo, ndi ena osadziwika kuti mphamvu ya geothermal ndi zotsalira zazomera.

M'nkhaniyi ndikulankhula za chilichonse chokhudzana ndi mphamvu ya geothermal. Kuyambira chomwe chiri, momwe imagwirira ntchito ndi zabwino zake ndi zovuta zake padziko lapansi zamagetsi omwe amatha kupitsidwanso.

Kodi mphamvu ya geothermal ndi chiyani?

Mphamvu ya geothermal ndi mtundu wa mphamvu zowonjezereka zomwe zimakhazikitsidwa pogwiritsa ntchito kutentha komwe kulipo pansi padziko lapansi. Ndiye kuti, gwiritsani ntchito kutentha kwa zigawo zamkati za Dziko Lapansi ndipo nayo imapereka mphamvu. Mphamvu zowonjezeredwa zimagwiritsa ntchito zinthu zakunja monga madzi, mpweya ndi kuwala kwa dzuwa. Komabe, mphamvu ya geothermal ndi imodzi yokha yomwe imathawa chizolowezi chakunja ichi.

Momwe Mphamvu Yamphamvu Yamadzi Imatulutsidwira

Chitsime: https://www.emaze.com/@ALRIIROR/Presentation-Name

Mukudziwa, pansi pamunsi pamakhala mphepo yozizira kwambiri. Ndiye kuti, kutentha kwa Dziko lapansi kudzawonjezeka pamene tikutsika ndikuyandikira pafupi ndi dziko lapansi. Zowona kuti mamvekedwe akuya kwambiri omwe anthu adakwanitsa kufikira samadutsa makilomita 12 mozama, koma tikudziwa kuti mawonekedwe amafuta amakula kutentha kwa nthaka pakati pa 2 ° C ndi 4 ° C pamamita 100 aliwonse omwe timatsikira. Pali madera osiyanasiyana padziko lapansi pomwe mapangidwe ake ndiochulukirapo ndipo ndichifukwa choti kutumphuka kwa dziko lapansi kumakhala kochepa panthawiyo. Chifukwa chake, zigawo zamkati kwambiri za Dziko Lapansi (monga chovala, chomwe chimatentha kwambiri) chili pafupi ndi dziko lapansi ndipo chimapereka kutentha kochuluka.

Izi zanenedwa kuti zikumveka bwino, koma kodi mphamvu ya geothermal imachokera kuti ndipo imachokera kuti?

Malo osungira mpweya wotentha

Monga ndanenera kale, pali madera ena apadziko lapansi omwe mawonekedwe ake ozama amadziwika bwino kuposa malo ena onse. Izi zimapangitsa kuti mphamvu zamagetsi komanso magetsi azigwiritsa ntchito kutentha kwa dziko lapansi ndizokwera kwambiri.

Kawirikawiri, Kutulutsa mphamvu ya geothermal ndizochepa kwambiri kuposa mphamvu ya dzuwa (60 mW / m² ya kutentha kwa nthaka poyerekeza ndi 340 mW / m² ya dzuwa). Komabe, m'malo omwe atchulidwa kuti gradient yamafuta ndiyokulirapo, yotchedwa mosungira madzi, kuthekera kopanga mphamvu kumakhala kwakukulu kwambiri (kumafikira 200 mW / m²). Kuthekera kwakukulu kotereku pakupanga mphamvu kumapangitsa kuti pakhale kutentha m'madzi am'madzi omwe amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito mwanzeru.

Kuti mupeze mphamvu kuchokera m'matope a geothermal, choyamba muyenera kuchita kafukufuku wamsika chifukwa mtengo wa kuboola umakula kwambiri ndikuya. Ndiye kuti, pamene tikulowerera mu Kuyesera kutentha pamwamba kumawonjezeka.

Mwa mitundu ya ma geological omwe timapeza atatu: madzi otentha, owuma ndi ma geys

Malo osungira madzi otentha

Pali mitundu iwiri yamadziwe otentha: zomwe zimachokera komanso zapansi panthaka. Zoyambayo zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati malo osambira otentha, kuzisakaniza pang'ono ndi madzi ozizira kuti muzitha kusambamo, koma zili ndi vuto lakuchepa kwamadzi.

Kumbali inayi, tili ndi malo osungira pansi panthaka omwe ndi akasupe amadzi otentha kwambiri komanso osazama kwambiri. Madzi amtunduwu amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kuti athe kutulutsa kutentha kwake kwamkati. Titha kuzungulira madzi otentha kudzera m'mapampu kuti tigwiritse ntchito kutentha kwake.

Akasupe otentha - Malo osungira madzi otentha

Kodi kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwamadama amadzi otentha kumachitika bwanji? Pofuna kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zamadzi otentha, kuzunzikako kuyenera kuchitidwa ndi zitsime zingapo, m'njira yoti zitsime ziwiri zilizonse madzi otentha amapezeka ndikubwezeretsedwanso ndi jakisoni m'ngalandezo zitakhazikika pansi. Kugwiritsa ntchito kotereku kumadziwika pkapena nthawi yopanda malire munthawi popeza kuthekera kwakutopetsa matope otentherako pafupifupi kulibe, popeza madzi abayilidwanso m'ngalande. Madzi amasunga mayendedwe nthawi zonse ndipo kuchuluka kwa madzi sikusintha, chifukwa chake sitimatsitsa madzi omwe alipo mu aquiferi, koma timagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zake zopumira kutenthetsa ndi ena. Zimapindulitsanso chifukwa timawona kuti palibe vuto lililonse popeza dera lamadzi lotsekedwa silimalola kutuluka kulikonse.

Kutengera kutentha komwe timapezako madzi m'nyanjayi, mphamvu ya geothermal yotulutsidwa imagwira ntchito zosiyanasiyana:

Madzi otentha pakatentha kwambiri

Timapeza madzi okhala ndi kutentha kwa mpaka 400 ° C ndipo nthunzi imapangidwa pamtunda. Pogwiritsa ntchito chopangira mphamvu ndi chosinthira china, mphamvu zamagetsi zimatha kupangidwa ndikugawidwa kumizinda kudzera pamaukonde.

Madzi otentha pamtambo wapakati

Madzi otenthawa amapezeka m'madzi okhala ndi kutentha kotsika, komwe, ambiri amafika ku 150 ° C. Ichi ndichifukwa chake kutulutsa kwa nthunzi yamadzi kukhala magetsi kumachitika mosagwiritsa bwino ntchito ndipo kuyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito madzi amadzimadzi.

Madzi otentha potentha kwambiri

Madipoziti awa madzi pafupifupi 70 ° C kotero kutentha kwake kumangobwera chifukwa cha kutentha kwa mpweya.

Madzi otentha pamatentha otsika kwambiri

Timapeza madzi omwe kutentha kwawo kufikira kwambiri 50 ° C. Mphamvu ya geothermal yomwe imatha kupezeka kudzera mumadzi amtunduwu imatithandiza kupeza zofunikira zapakhomo monga kutentha kwapakhomo.

Mphamvu yotentha ndi mpweya

Minda youma

Malo osungira owuma ndi malo omwe thanthwe ndi louma komanso lotentha kwambiri. Mumtundu uwu wamadipoziti palibe madzi amtundu omwe amakhala ndi mphamvu yochokera ku geothermal kapena mtundu uliwonse wazinthu zopumira. Ndi akatswiri omwe amafotokozera izi kuti athe kupatsira kutentha. Madipoziti amenewa amakhala ndi zokolola zochepa komanso amapereka ndalama zambiri.

Kodi timapeza bwanji mphamvu yotentha ndi nthaka kuchokera kuminda imeneyi? Kuti mukhale ndi magwiridwe antchito okwanira ndikupeza phindu pachuma, pamafunika malo apansi osakhala ozama kwambiri (popeza ndalama zogwirira ntchito zimawonjezeka kwambiri ngati kuzama kumakulirakulira) ndipo zomwe zimakhala ndi zinthu zowuma kapena miyala koma kutentha kwambiri. Dziko lapansi limabooleredwa kuti lifike kuzipangazi ndipo madzi amalowetsedwa mu kuboola. Madzi awa akabayidwa, dzenje lina limapangidwa kudzera momwe timachotsera madzi otentha kuti tigwiritse ntchito mphamvu zake.

Zoyipa zamtunduwu ndikuti ukadaulo ndi zida zochitira izi sangasinthike pachuma, kotero ntchito ikugwiridwa pakukula kwake ndikusintha.

Zogulitsa zamagetsi

Ma geyser ndi akasupe otentha omwe mwachilengedwe amatulutsa nthunzi ndi madzi otentha. Pali ochepa padziko lapansi. Chifukwa chakuzindikira kwawo, ma geysers amapezeka m'malo omwe ulemu wawo ndi chisamaliro ziyenera kukhala zapamwamba kuti zisawonongeke magwiridwe antchito.

Geyser. Mphamvu ya geothermal

Pofuna kutulutsa kutentha kuchokera m'zitsime za geyser, kutentha kwake kuyenera kulumikizidwa mwachindunji pogwiritsa ntchito makina ampweya kuti apeze mphamvu zamagetsi. Vuto lazotulutsa zamtunduwu ndikuti Kubwezeretsanso kwa madzi kale kutentha pang'ono kumapangitsa magmas kukhala ozizira ndikuwapangitsa kutha. Zikuwunikidwanso kuti jakisoni wamadzi ozizira ndikuzizira kwa magma kumabweretsa zivomezi zazing'ono koma pafupipafupi.

Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zamagetsi

Tawona mitundu yamadzi yosungira mphamvu ya geothermal, koma sitinawunikenso momwe angagwiritsire ntchito. Masiku ano mphamvu ya geothermal ingagwiritsidwe ntchito m'njira zambiri m'moyo wathu watsiku ndi tsiku. Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutenthetsa ndikupanga malo oyenera m'nyumba zosungira ndikuwotcha nyumba ndi malo ogulitsira.

Itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito kuzirala komanso kupanga madzi otentha apanyumba. Mwambiri mphamvu yamafuta imagwiritsidwa ntchito malo, kutenthetsa ndi madzi otentha, kupanga magetsi, popangira mchere komanso ulimi ndi aquaculture.

Ubwino wa mphamvu ya geothermal

  • Chinthu choyamba chimene tiyenera kufotokoza ponena za ubwino wa mphamvu ya mpweya ndikuti ndi mtundu wa mphamvu zowonjezereka chifukwa zimawoneka ngati mphamvu zoyera. Kugwiritsa ntchito kwake mphamvu ndikugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu sizimatulutsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha chifukwa chake sikuwononga mpweya wa ozoni kapena kuthandizira kukulitsa zovuta zakusintha kwanyengo.
  • Ayi amatulutsa zinyalala.
  • Mtengo wopangira mphamvu zamagetsi kuchokera ku mphamvu zamtunduwu ndi wotsika mtengo kwambiri. Ndiotsika mtengo poyerekeza ndi mbewu zamalasha kapena magetsi.
  • Kuchuluka kwa mphamvu yotentha ndi nthaka yomwe ingapangidwe padziko lapansi amakhulupirira kuti ndiyokwera kuposa mafuta onse, gasi, uranium, ndi malasha ophatikizidwa.

Kutulutsa mphamvu ya geothermal

Zoyipa zamphamvu yamafuta

Pomaliza, popeza sizinthu zonse zokongola, tiyenera kusanthula zovuta zakugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yamafuta.

  • Chimodzi mwazovuta zazikulu ndikuti idakali ndi chitukuko chochepa chaumisiri. M'malo mwake lero Sizinatchulidwe pomwe zolembedwanso zikulembedwa.
  • Pali zoopsa pakagwiritsidwe kake kotuluka kwa haidrojeni sulphide ndi arsenic, zomwe zikuwononga zinthu.
  • Kuchepetsa gawo kumatanthauza kuti mphamvu yamafuta amafunika kukhazikitsidwa kokha m'malo momwe kutentha kwa nthaka kumakhala kotentha kwambiri. Kuphatikiza apo, mphamvu zopangidwa ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito mdera lomwe amatenga, Silingathe kutumizidwa kumadera akutali kwambiri chifukwa kutayika kumatha kutayika.
  • Malo opangira magetsi opangira geothermal amachititsa zazikulu zotsatira za malo.
  • Mphamvu ya geothermal siimatha mphamvu zokha chifukwa kutentha kwa dziko lapansi kukutha.
  • M'madera ena omwe amapezako mphamvuzi, zivomezi zazing'ono zimachitika chifukwa chobayira madzi.

Monga mukuwonera, mphamvu ya geothermal, ngakhale siyidziwika bwino, ili ndi ntchito zambiri komanso zikhalidwe zingapo zomwe zingaganizire tsogolo lamphamvu.

Dziwani mitundu ina yamphamvu zowonjezeredwa:

Nkhani yowonjezera:
Mitundu yamphamvu zowonjezereka

Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

Khalani oyamba kuyankha

Siyani ndemanga yanu

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa. Amafuna minda amalembedwa ndi *

*

*

  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.