Kodi mphamvu yotentha bwanji, makina owongolera mpweya komanso tsogolo

Mphamvu yotentha ndi mpweya

Zachidziwikire kuti mukudziwa mphamvu zamagetsi zomwe zimakhalapo, koma Kodi mukudziwa zoyambira zonse za mphamvu imeneyi?

Mwanjira yayikulu kwambiri timati mphamvu ya geothermal ndi kutentha mphamvu kuchokera mkati mwa Dziko Lapansi.

Mwanjira ina, mphamvu yotentha ndi mphamvu yokhayo yomwe imachokera ku Dzuwa.

Kuphatikiza apo, titha kunena kuti mphamvuyi siwongowonjezeranso, chifukwa kukonzanso kwake sikuli kopanda malire, Komabe sichitha pamunthu, chimawerengedwa kuti ndiwowonjezereka pazinthu zothandiza.

Chiyambi cha kutentha mkati Padziko Lapansi

Chimene chimayambitsa kutentha kwambiri padziko lapansi ndi kuwola kosalekeza kwa zinthu zina zowulutsa radioactive monga Uranium 238, Thorium 232 ndi Potaziyamu 40.

Chimodzi mwa izo magwero amphamvu ya geothermal ndi kugundana kwa ma tectonic mbale.

M'madera ena, kutentha kwa pansi pamadzi kumakhazikika, monga kumachitika pafupi ndi mapiri, magma mafunde, ma gys ndi akasupe otentha.

Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya geothermal

Mphamvu imeneyi yakhala ikugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa zaka zosachepera 2.000.

Aroma adagwiritsa ntchito akasupe otentha ku osamba ndipo, posachedwapa, mphamvuyi yagwiritsidwa ntchito pa Kutentha kwa nyumba ndi malo obiriwira komanso popanga magetsi.

Pakadali pano pali mitundu itatu yamadipoziti yomwe titha kupeza mphamvu zamagetsi:

  • Malo osungira kutentha kwambiri
  • Malo otsika otentha
  • Malo osungira miyala yamoto owuma

Malo osungira kutentha kwambiri

Timanena kuti pali gawo la kutentha kwakukulu madzi osungira akafika kutentha pamwamba pa 100ºC chifukwa chakupezeka kwa magetsi otentha.

Kuti kutentha kwa geothermal kupangitse kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya geothermal, mikhalidwe ya nthaka imayenera kupangitsa kuti zitheke kupanga mosungira madzi, yofanana ndi yomwe ili ndi mafuta kapena gasi, wopangidwa ndi miyala yodutsa miyala, miyala yamchenga kapena miyala yamiyala mwachitsanzo, yopangidwa ndi wosanjikiza madzi, ngati dongo.

kutentha kwambiri

Madzi apansi panthaka otenthedwa ndi miyala amadutsa mbali ina yokwera kusungira mosungira, komwe amakhalabe ogwidwa pansi pa malo osakwanira.

Nthawi pali ming'alu muzosanjikiza zopanda malire, kutha kwa nthunzi kapena madzi kumtunda ndikotheka, kuwonekera ngati akasupe otentha kapena ma geys.

Akasupe otentha awa akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kuyambira nthawi zakale ndipo amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito mosavuta potenthetsera ndi mafakitale.

matenthedwe osambira

Malo Osambira Achiroma

Malo otsika otentha

Malo osungira kutentha kwambiri ndi omwe kutentha kwa madzi, yomwe tikugwiritsa ntchito, ilipo pakati pa 60 ndi 100ºC.

M'malo awa, Mtengo wamatenthedwe otentha ndichikhalidwe cha kutumphuka kwa dziko lapansi, kotero kukhalapo kwa 2 ya zikhalidwe zam'mbuyomu sikofunikira: kukhalapo kwa gwero lotentha la kutentha ndi kutchinjiriza kwa malo osungira madzi.

Kutentha kotsika

Only kupezeka kwa nyumba yosungiramo katundu pakuya koyenera kotero kuti, ndi kutentha kwa nthaka komwe kulipo m'derali, pamakhala kutentha komwe kumapangitsa kuti kuchitira nkhanza ndalama.

Malo osungira miyala yamoto owuma

Kuthekera ya mphamvu ya geothermal es zambiri chokulirapo ngati kutentha kumachokera kumatanthwe owuma owuma, yomwe ilibe madzi mwachibadwa.

Ali pa kutentha pakati pa 250 ndi 300ºC kale imodzi kuya pakati pa 2.000 ndi 3.000 mita.

Pazogwiritsira ntchito ndikofunikira kuthyola miyala yotentha, kuti ziwapangitse kukhala zovunda.

Kenako madzi ozizira amayambitsidwa kuchokera pamwamba podutsa chitoliro, kuti idutse pamiyala yotentha, kotero kuti itenthe kenako, nthunzi yamadzi imatulutsidwa kudzera pa chitoliro china kugwiritsa ntchito kukakamiza kwake kuyendetsa chopangira mphamvu ndi kupanga mphamvu zamagetsi.

Lemba lotentha

Vuto lakuzunza kwamtunduwu ndi njira zopunthira miyala mwakuya komanso pobowola.

Ngakhale kupita patsogolo kwakukulu kwachitika m'malo awa pogwiritsa ntchito njira zopangira mafuta.

Kutentha kochepa kwambiri mphamvu yamagetsi

Titha kulingalira za nthaka yapansi kuzama pang'ono ngati a kutentha gwero pa 15ºC, zosinthika kwathunthu komanso zosatha.

Pogwiritsa ntchito njira yabwino yojambulira komanso pampu yotenthetsera, kutentha kumatha kusamutsidwa kuchokera ku 15ºC kupita ku makina omwe amafikira 50ºC, ndipo chomalizirachi chitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutentha ndi kupeza madzi otentha oyenera kugwiritsa ntchito mnyumba.

Komanso, mpope wotentha womwewo umatha kuyamwa kutentha kwachilengedwe ku 40ºC ndikuupereka kumtunda wokhala ndi makina omwewoChifukwa chake, makina omwe angathetse kutentha kwapakhomo amathanso kuthana ndi kuzirala, ndiye kuti, nyumbayo ili ndi gawo limodzi lokhalanso ndi mpweya wabwino.

Choyipa chachikulu champhamvu zamtunduwu ndi Mukufuna malo akulu akulu oyika maliro kunja kwa dera lakunjaKomabe, mwayi wake waukulu ndi pKuthekera kogwiritsa ntchito ngati makina otenthetsera komanso kuziziritsa pamtengo wotsika kwambiri.

Pachithunzichi mutha kuwona njira zosiyanasiyana zotengera kapena kusamutsa kutentha pansi kuti mugwiritse ntchito potenthetsa, kuziziritsa ndikupeza DHW (madzi otentha apanyumba). Ndikufotokozera ndondomeko ili m'munsiyi.

Chiwembu cha HVAC

Makometsedwe a mpweya nyumba, nyumba zingapo, chipatala, ndi zina zambiri. angafikire payekhapayekha, popeza sikufuna ndalama zochuluka zadongosolo, mosiyana ndi kutentha kwapakatikati komanso kwapakatikati.

Njirayi yogwiritsira ntchito mphamvu ya dzuwa yomwe imayikidwa padziko lapansi yakhazikitsidwa pazinthu zazikulu zitatu:

  1. Kutentha mpope
  2. Sinthani dera ndi Earth
    1. Kutentha kusinthanitsa ndi madzi akumtunda
    2. Sinthanitsani ndi nthaka
  3. Sinthani dera ndi nyumba

Kutentha mpope

Pampu yotentha ndi makina otentha zomwe zimakhazikitsidwa ndi Carnot Cycle yochitidwa ndi mpweya.

Makinawa amatenga kutentha kuchokera ku gwero lina kuti apereke kwa wina yemwe amakhala otentha kwambiri.

Chitsanzo chodziwika bwino ndimafirijiAwa ali ndi makina omwe amatulutsa kutentha kuchokera mkati ndikuwatulutsira kunja, omwe amakhala otentha kwambiri.

Zitsanzo zina zama pump pump ndi ma air conditioner komanso ma air conditioner anyumba ndi magalimoto.

Mukukonzekera uku, mutha kuwona kuti Babu yozizira imatenga kutentha kuchokera pansi ndikusinthanitsa ndipo madzi omwe amayenda modutsa babu yozizira amatenga kutentha mpaka kutuluka.

kutentha pump scheme

Dera lomwe limanyamula madzi ndi kutentha kuchokera pansi limazizira ndikubwerera pansi, Kutentha kwanthaka kumathamanga kwambiri.

Kumbali inayi, babu yotentha, mkati mwa nyumbayo, imayatsa mpweya ndikupatsa kutentha.

Pampu yotentha "ikukoka" kutentha kuchokera ku babu yozizira kupita ku babu yotentha.

Kachitidwe (mphamvu zoperekedwa / mphamvu zowonjezera) zimatengera kutentha kwa gwero lomwe limapereka kutentha kwamphamvu.

Machitidwe ochiritsira owongolera mpweya kuyamwa kutentha kuchokera kumlengalenga, komwe kumatha kufikira nthawi yozizira kutenthas pansipa -2 ° C.

Pa kutentha kumeneku evaporator silingatenge kutentha konse komanso ntchito mpope ndi otsika kwambiri.

M'chilimwe kukatentha kwambiri, pampu imayenera kusiya kutentha kochokera mlengalenga, komwe kumatha kukhala 40ºC, ndi zomwe magwiridwe antchito sakhala abwino momwe mungayembekezere.

Komabe, kayendedwe ka mpweya wa geothermal, wokhala ndi gwero ku kutentha kosalekeza, magwiridwe antchito nthawi zonse amakhala abwino osatengera kutentha kwamlengalenga. Chifukwa chake dongosololi limagwira bwino kwambiri kuposa pampu wamba yotentha.

Sinthanitsani ma circuits ndi Earth

Kutentha kusinthanitsa ndi madzi akumtunda

Njirayi idakhazikitsidwa ikani madzi mu matenthedwe kukhudzana kubwera kuchokera kumtunda ndi evaporator / condenser, malinga ndi zosowa, kuti mayamwidwe kapena kutentha kwa madzi atchulidwe.

Mwayi: mphatso ndizakuti ili ndi mtengo wotsika

Zovuta:  sikuti nthawi zonse pamapezeka madzi.

Sinthanitsani ndi nthaka

Este zitha kukhala zachindunji pamene kusinthana pakati pa nthaka ndi evaporator / condenser ya pump pump kumachitika pogwiritsa ntchito chitoliro chamkuwa chobisika.

Panyumba pangafunike chitoliro pakati pa 100 ndi 150 mita.

  • Phindu: mtengo wotsika, kuphweka ndi magwiridwe antchito.
  • Zovuta: kuthekera kwa kutuluka kwa gasi ndi kuzizira kwamalo amtunda.

Kapenanso itha kukhala yothandizira ikakhala ndi mapaipi oyikidwiratu, omwe madzi amayendetsedwa, omwe amasinthanitsa kutentha ndi evaporator / condenser.

Panyumba pangafunike chitoliro pakati pa 100 ndi 200 mita.

  • Phindu: kutsika pang'ono m'dera, potero kupewa kusiyana kwakukulu kwakutentha
  • Zovuta: kukwera mtengo.

Sinthanitsani madera ndi nyumba

Masekeli awa mutha kukhala kusinthana kwachindunji kapena kugawa madzi otentha ndi ozizira.

Kusinthana kwachindunji Zimatengera kuzungulira kwa mtsinje pamwamba pa evaporator / condenser pambali pa nyumbayo kuti musinthanitse kutentha ndikugawa mpweya wotentha / wozizirawu mnyumba yonse, kudzera m'mapaipi otenthedwa bwino.

Ndi njira imodzi yogawa kamodzi, kugawa kwa kutentha ndi kuzizira mnyumba kumathetsedwa.

  • Phindu: Nthawi zambiri amakhala ndi mtengo wotsika komanso kuphweka kwambiri.
  • Zovuta: magwiridwe antchito, kutonthoza pang'ono ndipo amangogwiritsidwa ntchito m'nyumba zomwe zimangomangidwa kumene kapena zotenthetsera mpweya.

Makina otentha ndi ozizira ogawa madzi Zimatengera kuzungulira kwa madzi pamwamba pa evaporator / condenser pambali pa nyumbayo kuti musinthanitse kutentha.

Madzi nthawi zambiri amatenthedwa mpaka 10ºC nthawi yotentha ndikutenthedwa mpaka 45ºC nthawi yozizira kuti igwiritsidwe ntchito ngati mpweya wabwino.

Kutenthetsa pansi ndi njira yomwe imagwirira ntchito bwino komanso yotonthoza kwambiri kuti athetse Kutentha, komabe, sikungagwiritsidwe ntchito kuzirala, chifukwa chake ngati njira iyi kapena ya ma radiator amadzi otentha agwiritsidwa ntchito, makina ena adzayenera kukhazikitsidwa kuti athe kugwiritsa ntchito kuzirala.

  • Phindu: Kutonthoza kwambiri komanso magwiridwe antchito.
  • Zovuta: kukwera mtengo.

Magwiridwe azinthu zowongolera mpweya

Mphamvu zamagetsi makina oziziritsira ntchito ngati gwero la kutentha nthaka yapansi pa 15ºC ndi osachepera Kutentha kwa 400% ndi 500% kuzirala.

Pamene kukutentha pali chopereka chokha champhamvu zamagetsi zama 25% zamagetsi onse ofunikira. Ndipo ikagwiritsidwa ntchito kuziziritsa magwiridwe antchito amapitilira kawiri a mpope wotentha wosinthana ndi mpweya pamadigiri 40, chifukwa chake palinso kupulumutsa mphamvu zopitilira 50% poyerekeza ndi zowongolera mpweya wamba.

Izi zikutanthauza kuti kupopera kuchokera pamtengo wozizira mpaka pamtengo wotentha magawo anayi a mphamvu (mwachitsanzo ma calories 4), pamafunika gawo limodzi lokha lamphamvu.

M'firiji, pa mayunitsi asanu aliwonse opopedwa, gawo limodzi limafunikira kuti awapope.

Izi ndizotheka kuyambira sikumapanga kutentha konse, koma zambiri zimasamutsidwa kuchokera pagwero lina kupita kwina.

Zida zamagetsi zomwe timapereka pampopu wamafuta ndizamagetsi, motero tikupanga CO2 pamalo opangira magetsi, ngakhale atakhala ochepa.

Komabe, titha kugwiritsa ntchito mapampu otentha kupatula magetsi, koma gwero lawo lamphamvu linali lotenthetsera dzuwa koma akadali mgawo loyesera.

Si timafanizitsa makinawa ndi makina otenthetsera mphamvu ya dzuwa kudzera pazenera titha kuwona izi amapereka mwayi waukulu, kuyambira safuna zotolera zazikulu kubwezera maola akusowa kwa ma radiation a dzuwa.

Chowonjezera chachikulu ndi misa ya Dziko Lapansi zomwe zimatipangitsa kukhala ndi gwero lamagetsi kutentha kwanthawi zonse, komwe kumangokhala kosatha.

Kuchita

Komabe, amene amachita Njira yabwino kwambiri yogwiritsira ntchito magetsi ndikuphatikiza ndi mphamvu zamagetsi zamagetsi., Osasuntha mpope wotentha monga tafotokozera pamwambapa (zomwe nazonso) koma kuwonjezera kutentha kwadongosolo, potengera kutentha ndi ntchito zapakhomo zotentha, madzi atha kubweretsedwa ku 15ºC pogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yamafuta za mtsogolo, kwezani kutentha kwa madzi ndi mphamvu ya dzuwa.

Pankhaniyi Kuchita bwino kwa mpope wotentha kumawonjezeka mwachangu.

Kugawa mphamvu yamagetsi

Mphamvu yotentha ndi mpweya imafalikira padziko lonse lapansi, makamaka ngati miyala yotentha youma, koma pali madera omwe mwina amapitilira 10% yadziko lapansi ndipo ali ndi zochitika zapadera kuti apange mphamvu zamtunduwu.

Ndikutanthauza mabacteria momwe zimawonetsanso zotsatira za zivomezi ndi mapiri ophulika ndikuti, mwazonse, zimagwirizana ndi zolakwika za tectonic zofunika.

mapu amagetsi amagetsi

Zina mwa izo ndi:

  • Gombe la Pacific la American Continent, kuchokera ku Alaska kupita ku Chile.
  • Kumadzulo kwa Pacific, kuchokera ku New Zealand, kudutsa Philippines ndi Indonesia, mpaka kumwera kwa China ndi Japan.
  • Chigwa chakusokonekera kwa Kenya, Uganda, Zaire ndi Ethiopia.
  • Malo ozungulira Mediterranean.

Ubwino ndi zovuta zamagetsi apakatikati

Mphamvu imeneyi, monga chilichonse chomwe chilipo, ili ndi magawo ake abwino komanso mbali zake zoyipa.

Como ubwino titha kunena kuti:

  • Zapezeka kufalikira padziko lonse lapansi.
  • Malo otsika mtengo otentha kwambiri amapezeka mu madera aphulika makamaka ili m'maiko omwe akutukuka, zomwe zingakhale choncho zothandiza kukonza mkhalidwe wanu.
  • Ndi gwero losatha la mphamvu pamlingo wamunthu.
  • Ndi mphamvu wotchipa izo zimadziwika.

Sus zovuta m'malo mwake ndi awa:

  • Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya geothermal kumapereka zina mavuto azachilengedwe, makamaka, Kutulutsidwa kwa mpweya wa sulphurous mumlengalenga, komanso madzi otentha amatuluka kumitsinje, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi zolimba kwambiri.

Ngakhale ambiri, madzi amdima amatha kupitsidwanso padziko lapansi, atatunga, nthawi zina, mchere wogulitsa potaziyamu.

  • Kawirikawiri, Kutumiza kutentha kwa nthaka pamtunda wautali sikungatheke. Madzi otentha kapena nthunzi ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pafupi ndi komwe zimachokera, zisanazizire.
  • Ambiri mwa madzi otentha kwambiri amapezeka kutentha pansi pa 150ºC motero, sikutentha mokwanira popanga magetsi.

Madzi awa atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito posamba, kutentha nyumba ndi nyumba zobiriwira komanso mbewu zakunja, kapena ngati madzi otentha otentha.

  • ndi madamu owuma amiyala owuma sakhalitsaPamene malo osweka amayamba kuzizira mofulumira, mphamvu yawo yamagetsi imatsika mwachangu.
  • ndi ndalama zowonjezera ndizokwera kwambiri.

Tsogolo lamphamvu yamagetsi

Pakadali pano, kungoboola ndi chotsani kutentha kwakuya pafupifupi 3 km, ngakhale ikuyembekezeka kuti ifike pozama kwambiri, pomwe mphamvu yamagetsi ingagwiritsidwe ntchito kwambiri.

Mphamvu zonse zilipom'njira yamadzi otentha, nthunzi kapena miyala yotentha, mpaka kuya kwa 10 km, njira 3.1017 chala. Nthawi 30 miliyoni zamagetsi zomwe amagwiritsa ntchito pano. Zomwe zikuwonetsa kuti Mphamvu ya geothermal ikhoza kukhala njira ina yosangalatsa kwakanthawi kochepa.

Njira zabwino zopangira zida zamafuta ndizofanana kwambiri ndi zamafuta. Komabe, kuyambira mphamvu zamadzi pa 300ºC ndizotsika nthawi chikwi kuposa mafuta, likulu limatha kuwerengedwa pachuma pakufufuza ndipo tikubooleza ndizochepa.

Komabe, kusowa kwamafuta kumatha kuwonjezera mphamvu yogwiritsira ntchito mphamvu yotenthetsera mphamvu.

Njira zamakampani

Kumbali inayi, kugwiritsa ntchito magwero ampweya wamagetsi popanga magetsi pamagetsi opanga ma turbo apakatikati (10-100MW) yomwe ili pafupi ndi malowa, koma kutentha kocheperako kotentha kwamagetsi kwamagetsi kunali 150ºC.

Posachedwapa makina opangira opanda makina apangidwira madzi otentherapo ndi nthunzi mpaka 100ºC chokha, chomwe chimalola kukulitsa gawo logwiritsa ntchito mphamvuzi.

Komanso, itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito munjira zopangira mafakitale monga kupanga zitsulo, kutentha kwa mafakitale amitundu yonse, kutentha kwa malo obiriwira, ndi zina zambiri.

Koma mwina Tsogolo labwino kwambiri lamphamvu yamagetsi limagwiritsidwa ntchito pamagetsi otsika kwambiri otentha kwambiri, chifukwa cha kusinthasintha, kuphweka, mtengo wotsika wachuma ndi chilengedwe komanso kuthekera kwa gwiritsani ntchito ngati kutentha ndi kuzirala.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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